Advertisement

Fraud Examiners in Private Investigations of White-Collar Crime

  • Petter Gottschalk
Chapter

Abstract

While being like any other investigation concerned with the past, investigating white-collar crime has its specific aspects and challenges. For example, while street criminals typically hide themselves, white-collar criminals only hide their crime. Often when suspicions of white-collar crime occur, business and government organizations hire fraud examiners to conduct internal investigations. Their findings are typically documented in reports of investigations. In this chapter, we stress the importance of the client evaluating investigation work upon receipt of an investigation report. Evaluation is a systematic study of work done or work in progress. Evaluation is an objective assessment of activities. Evaluation implies assessing or estimating the value of something. Evaluation involves analyzing to determine if the investigation did what it was intended to do and if the investigation had expected impact.

Keywords

White-collar crime Certified fraud examiners Certified financial crime specialists Financial crime Internal investigations Investigative thinking styles (fraud) Investigative complexity 

References

  1. ACFE. (2008). 2008 Report to the Nation – On Occupational Fraud & Abuse, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  2. ACFE. (2014). Report to the Nations on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, 2014 Global Fraud Study, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  3. ACFE. (2016). CFE Code of Professional Standard, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, www.acfe.com/standards/
  4. Anders, S. B. (2006). Website of the month: Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. The CPA Journal, 71.Google Scholar
  5. Brooks, G., & Button, M. (2011). The police and fraud investigation and the case for a nationalized solution in the United Kingdom. The Police Journal, 84, 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Button, M., Frimpong, K., Smith, G., & Johnston, L. (2007). Professionalizing counter fraud specialists in the UK: Assessing progress and recommendations for reform. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 9, 92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carson, D. (2013). Investigations: What could, and should, be taught? The Police Journal, 86(3), 249–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CFCS. (2013). CFCS certification examination study manual (4th ed.). Miami, FL: Certified Financial Crime Specialist, Association of Certified Financial Crime Specialists.Google Scholar
  9. Coburn, N. F. (2006). Corporate investigations. Journal of Financial Crime, 13(3), 348–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corsianos, M. (2003). Discretion in detectives’ decision making and ‘high profile’ cases. Police Practice and Research, 4(3), 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dean, G. (2005). The Cognitive Psychology of Police Investigators.Conference paper, School of Justice Studies, Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  12. Dupont, B. (2014). Private security regimes: Conceptualizing the forces that shape the private delivery of security. Theoretical Criminology, 18(3), 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill, M., & Hart, J. (1997). Exploring investigative policing. British Journal of Criminology, 37(4), 549–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldschmidt, J., & Anonymous. (2008). The necessity of dishonesty: Police deviance, ‘making the case’ and the public good. Policing and Society, 18(2), 113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottschalk, P. (2016). Blame game and rotten apples in private investigation reports: The case of Hadeland and Ringerike Broadband in Norway. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 13, 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Green, B. A., & Podgor, E. (2014). Unregulated internal investigations: Achieving fairness for corporate constituents. Boston College Law Review, 54(1), 73–126.Google Scholar
  17. Herrington, V., & Roberts, K. (2012). Addressing psychological vulnerability in the police suspect interview. Policing, 6(2), 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kennedy, D. B. (2013). Applications of forensic sociology and criminology to civil litigation. Journal of Applied Social Science, 5, 33.Google Scholar
  19. Kessler, R. (2012). The secrets of the FBI. New York, NY: Broadway Paperbacks, Random House.Google Scholar
  20. Machen, M. J., & Richards, R. E. (2004). The use of fraud examiners in the battle against occupational fraud and abuse. The Journal of Investment Compliance, Winter, 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meerts, C. (2014). Empirical case studies of corporate security in international perspective, in: Walby, K. and Lippert, R.K. (editors), Corporate security in the 21st century – Theory and practice in international perspective, Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, Houndmills, UK, 97–115.Google Scholar
  22. Morgan, M., & Nix, W. (2003). CPA perceptions of the marketability, career enhancements and quality of Services of Certified Fraud Examiners. The Southern Business and Economic Journal, 31–50.Google Scholar
  23. Osterburg, J. W., & Ward, R. H. (2014). Criminal investigation: A method for reconstructing the past (7th ed.). Waltham, MA: Anderson Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Schneider, S. (2006). Privatizing economic crime enforcement: Exploring the role of private sector investigative agencies in combating money laundering. Policing & Society, 16(3), 285–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Siegel, L. (2009). Introduction to criminal justice. California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  26. Staines, Z. (2013). Managing tacit investigative knowledge: Measuring “investigative thinking styles”. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 36(3), 604–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tong, S. (2009a). Introduction: A brief history of crime investigation. In S. Tong, R. Bryant, & M. Hovath (Eds.), Understanding criminal investigation (pp. 1–10). Chichester: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  28. Tong, S. (2009b). Professionalising investigation. In S. Tong, R. Bryant, & M. Hovath (Eds.), Understanding criminal investigation (pp. 197–216). Chichester: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  29. Wells, J. T. (2003). The fraud examiners. Journal of Accountancy, October, 76–80.Google Scholar
  30. Williams, J. W. (2005). Governability matters: The private policing of economic crime and the challenge of democratic governance. Policing & Society, 15(2), 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams, J. W. (2014). The private eyes of corporate culture: The forensic accounting and corporate investigation industry and the production of corporate financial security. In K. Walby & R. K. Lippert (Eds.), Corporate security in the 21st century – Theory and practice in international perspective (pp. 56–77). Hampshire, Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BI Norwegian Business SchoolOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations