Facial, facial skeleton and dental considerations in vascular malformations

  • M. O Teresa


Vascular malformations of the head and neck may affect all tissue layers including skin, subcutaneous fat, muscle, mucosa, and bone. These lesions are associated with:
  • Soft tissue overgrowth and enlargement.

  • Primary skeletal involvement with malformation.

  • Vascular lesions may also mold or misshape skeletal structures by virtue of their mass. This is referred to as a secondary mass effect which leads to either thinning or hypertrophy of the adjacent bone.


Occlusion Tongue Venous Lymphatic Bleeding Pain Surgery Laser Oral hygiene Bone Orthognathic 


To assist the reader in gaining familiarity with available evidence, the following rating system has been used to indicate key references for each chapter’s content:

***: Critical material. Anyone dealing with this condition should be familiar with this reference.

**: Useful material. Important information that is valuable in in clinical or scientific practice related to this condition.

*: Optional material. For readers with a strong interest in the chapter content or a desire to study it in greater depth.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. O Teresa
    • 1
  1. 1.Vascular Birthmark Institute of New YorkManhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat and Lenox Hill HospitalsNew YorkUSA

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