Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

  • Vinay Kumar Balachandrakumar
  • Nadya Fatima Jabbar
  • David White
  • Nicholas Stern


The diagnostic criteria for HCC involve the use of contrast-enhanced radiology in the presence of cirrhosis whilst understanding the behaviour of different nodules to contrast injection and diffusion weighting. In those with indeterminate nodules on imaging criteria or with non-cirrhotic livers, a tissue diagnosis (biopsy) is needed to establish the diagnosis. Once diagnosed there are several staging systems, for both the cancer and underlying liver disease, with the BCLC system being recommended in international guidelines. Only once staged can a management plan be determined.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Computerised tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Staging Barcelona clinic for liver cancer (BCLC) Biopsy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinay Kumar Balachandrakumar
    • 1
  • Nadya Fatima Jabbar
    • 2
  • David White
    • 2
  • Nicholas Stern
    • 2
  1. 1.University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Aintree University HospitalLiverpoolUK

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