Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
The diagnostic criteria for HCC involve the use of contrast-enhanced radiology in the presence of cirrhosis whilst understanding the behaviour of different nodules to contrast injection and diffusion weighting. In those with indeterminate nodules on imaging criteria or with non-cirrhotic livers, a tissue diagnosis (biopsy) is needed to establish the diagnosis. Once diagnosed there are several staging systems, for both the cancer and underlying liver disease, with the BCLC system being recommended in international guidelines. Only once staged can a management plan be determined.
KeywordsHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Computerised tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Staging Barcelona clinic for liver cancer (BCLC) Biopsy