Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Eleanor J. Taylor
  • Ian A. RoweEmail author


Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis is recommended with the aim to reduce mortality. The evidence that supports surveillance is of low quality, and the test used, 6-monthly ultrasound scanning, has inherent limitations that reduce its efficacy. Those limitations affect both sensitivity, meaning that not all early stage cancer is diagnosed, and also specificity, leading to false-positive testing and downstream harm. The factors that limit the effectiveness of surveillance are discussed in this chapter, together with proposals to improve the outcomes for patients with cirrhosis and undergoing surveillance for HCC.


Liver cancer Benefit Harm Ultrasound AFP 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Liver UnitSt. James’s University HospitalLeedsUK
  2. 2.Leeds Institute for Data AnalyticsUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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