Advertisement

Liver Cancers pp 179-186 | Cite as

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Cholangiocarcinoma

  • Stephen McClements
  • Shahid A. KhanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Rising rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) have been reported globally, with variations in subtypes of CC. The reasons for these epidemiological changes are unclear. This chapter summarises the major reported epidemiological changes and describes the major known risk factors as well as the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma.

Keywords

Classification Epidemiology Risk factors Molecular pathogenesis 

References

  1. 1.
    Vauthey JN, Blumgart LH. Recent advances in the management of cholangiocarcinomas. Semin Liver Dis. 1994;14(2):109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bridgewater J, Galle PR, Khan SA, Llovet JM, Park J-W, Patel T, Pawlik TM, Gores GJ. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol. 2014;60(6):1268–89 pii: S0168-8278(14)00067-1.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2014.01.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    DeOliveira ML, Cunningham SC, Cameron JL, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma: thirty-one-year experience with 564 patients at a single institution. Ann Surg. 2007;245:755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kato T, Tsukamoto E, Kuge Y, et al. Clinical role of (18)F-FDG PET for initial staging of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002;29:1047–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zen Y, Adsay NV, Bardadin K, et al. Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia: an international interobserver agreement study and proposal for diagnostic criteria. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Broome U, Olsson R, Loof L, et al. Natural history and prognostic factors in 305 Swedish patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 1996;38:610–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watanapa P, Watanapa WB. Liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Br J Surg. 2002;89:962–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simeone DM. Gallbladder and biliary tree: anatomy and structural anomalies. In: Yamada T, editor. Textbook of gastroenterology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Willimas and Wilkins; 1999. p. 2244–57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohtsuka T, Inoue K, Ohuchida J, et al. Carcinoma arising in choledochocele. Endoscopy. 2001;33:614–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kubo S, Kinoshita H, Hirohashi K, Hamba H. Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma. World J Surg. 1995;19:637–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen MF. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (cholangiocellular carcinoma): clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;14:1144–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khan SA, Carmichael PL, Taylor-Robinson SD, Habib N, Thomas HC. DNA adducts, detected by 32P postlabelling, in human cholangiocarcinoma. Gut. 2003;52:586–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sahani D, Prasad SR, Tannabe KK, Hahn PF, Mueller PR, Saini S. Thorotrast-induced cholangiocarcinoma: case report. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28:72–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hardell L, Bengtsson NO, Jonsson U, Eriksson S, Larsson LG. Aetiological aspects on primary liver cancer with special regard to alcohol, organic solvents and acute intermittent porphyria: an epidemiological investigation. Br J Cancer. 1984;50:389–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sorensen HT, Friis S, Olsen JH, et al. Risk of liver and other types of cancer in patients with cirrhosis: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. Hepatology. 1998;28:921–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Donato F, Gelatti U, Tagger A, et al. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatitis C and B virus infection, alcohol intake, and hepatolithiasis: a case-control study in Italy. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:959–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Welzel TM, Graubard BI, Zeuzem S, et al. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of primary liver cancer in the United States: a study in the SEER-medicare database. Hepatology. 2011;54:463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palmer WC, Patel T. Are common factors involved in the pathogenesis of primary liver cancers? A meta-analysis of risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol. 2012;57(1):69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jing W, Jin G, Zhou X, et al. Diabetes mellitus and increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21:24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Razumilava N, Gores GJ. Cholangiocarcinoma. Lancet. 2014;383:2168–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khan SA, Thomas HC, Davidson BR, Taylor-Robinson SD. Cholangiocarcinoma. Lancet. 2005;366:1303–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Liver Unit, St Mary’s Hospital Campus, Imperial College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations