Heterotopic Ossification

  • Gregory PereiraEmail author
  • Nikolaos Paschos
  • John KellyIV
Part of the Orthopaedic Study Guide Series book series (ORTHSTUDY)


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of mature cellular bone in non-osseous tissues. While the exact biological etiology is unknown, HO typically occurs spontaneously, postoperatively, or following trauma, notably after spinal cord injury or TBI (see below).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Pereira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikolaos Paschos
    • 1
    • 2
  • John KellyIV
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryBoston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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