The Role of Consumer Advocacy in Strengthening Food Safety Policy
When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906, he raised public concern about the health, safety, and sanitation practices of the meatpacking industry, which Congress quickly addressed by enacting the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. Since then, new food challenges have emerged as food production practices and longer supply chains evolved for a population demanding fresher food, more food eaten away from home, and more prepared food items for consumption at home. Late in the twentieth century, a large outbreak associated with E. coli O157:H7 spurred the federal government and its state partners to shift meat and poultry oversight away from a prescribed reactive approach to one that is more proactive and preventive and based on a science- and risk-based approach. Later, after repeated outbreaks associated with non-meat and poultry products, a similar effort was launched to provide stronger protections for other types of food. Consumer advocates made important contributions to secure the passage and implementation of both the 1996 Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Final Rule at USDA and the 2011 Food Safety Modernization Act at FDA, and they have led the way in developing other protections, such as improved labeling for foods. As scientific knowledge improves our understanding of food safety hazards, there is much more to be done if we hope to meet the ongoing and future food challenges, in particular, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of foodborne bacteria.
KeywordsAntibiotic resistance Consumer advocacy Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Food policy Food safety reform Foodborne illness Mechanically tenderized beef PR/HACCP
Agricultural Research Service
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Congressional Budget Office
Economic Research Service
Food and Drug Administration
Foodborne Outbreak Online Database
Food Safety Inspection Service
Food Safety Modernization Act
Government Accountability Office
Health and Human Services
Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration
Long-term health outcomes
Make Our Food Safe coalition
National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System
Office of Inspector General
Office of Management and Budget
Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
Safe Food Coalition
US Department of Agriculture
- Achenbach J, Sun L. Trump budget seeks huge cuts to science and medical research, disease prevention. Washington Post. 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2017/05/22/trump-budget-seeks-huge-cuts-to-disease-prevention-and-medical-research-departments/?utm_term=.c192b73efff2. Accessed 15 July 2017.
- Alvares C, Green K, Lim C. Results of checklist and reassessment of control for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef operations. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Data Analysis and Integration Group (DAIG) of the Office of Food Defense and Emergency Response. 2008. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/shared/PDF/Ecoli_Reassement_&_Checklist.pdf?redirecthttp=true. Accessed 29 Aug 2016.
- Andrews J. Senators, food industry groups call for more FSMA funding. Food Safety News. 2015. http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2015/05/seven-u-s-senators-major-food-industry-groups-call-for-more-fsma-funding/#.WDMxKvkrLs1. Accessed 21 Nov 2016.
- Beck R. 2015 Consumer trust study: impact on food safety. Webinar, Part IV: transparency—food safety. Center for Food Integrity. 2016. http://www.foodintegrity.org/research/consumer-trust-research/research-webinars/. Accessed 4 Nov 2016.
- Blum J. Obama says FDA needs review after peanut illnesses. Bloomberg News. 2009. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/705282167/Obama-says-FDA-needs-review-after-peanut-illnesses.html?pg=all. Accessed 21 Nov 2016.
- Bottemiller H. Looking back: the story behind banning E. coli O157:H7. Food Safety News. 2011. http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/09/looking-back-in-time-the-story-behind-banning-ecoli-o157h7/#.WQ4Q8_krLs0. Accessed 6 May 2017.
- CAST—Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Food safety and fresh produce: an update. CAST Commentary QTA20091. 2009. https://www.cast-science.org/download.cfm?PublicationID=2946&File=f030788c37850f31a5287c755f70231b4013. Accessed 6 May 2017.
- CDC. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infections linked to peanut butter. (Final Update). 2008–2009. https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/2009/peanut-butter-2008-2009.html. Accessed 16 Feb 2017.
- CDC. Multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with beef from national steak and poultry. (final update). 2010. https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2010/national-steak-poultry-1-6-10.html. Accessed 13 April 2017.
- CDC. Foodborne illness surveillance systems. 2011. https://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/pdfs/factsheet_g_surveillance.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- CDC. Impact of outbreaks traced to contaminated food. Infograph. 2013. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/pdfs/impact-of-contaminated-foods-508c.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2017.
- CDC. Integrated food safety centers of excellence. 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/centers/. Accessed 2 Aug 2016.
- CDC. Norovirus transmission. 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/about/transmission.html. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- Center for Effective Government. Cutting costs and courting contamination: what food safety budget cuts mean for public safety. 2012. http://www.foreffectivegov.org/node/12044. Accessed 15 July 2017.
- Center for Food Safety. Center for Food Safety v. Margaret Hamburg. No. C 124529 PJH. 2013. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/57-sj-decision_78315.pdf. Accessed 4 Nov 2016.
- Center for Food Safety. Chain reaction II: how top restaurants rate on reducing use of antibiotics in their meat supply. 2016. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/chainreaction2-report-2016-final_13986.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2017.
- Center for Foodborne Illness Research & Prevention. Tracking antibiotic use in food animals. 2016. http://www.foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/2016_CFI_Fact.Sheet_Track.animal.antibiotic.use_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Center for Science in the Public Interest. Petition for an interpretive rule declaring antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Newport, and Salmonella typhimurium in meat and poultry to be adulterants. 2014. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/25551672-a5db-4a11-9253-05f92f6b49a4/Petition-CSPI-ABRSalmonella-2014.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Figure 15. Relative rates of culture-confirmed infections with Campylobacter, STEC* O157, Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio, and overall measure of change, compared with 1996–1998 rates, by year. FoodNet 1996–2015. https://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/reports/data/incidence-trends.html#figure15. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- Clapp S. Fixing the food system: changing how we produce and consume food. Praeger, An imprint of ABC-CLIO. LLC; 2017.Google Scholar
- Conference for Food Protection. Petition to USDA/FSIS to label mechanically tenderized beef products. 2010. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/7da02e44-712f-4779-aa10-fb1760493261/Petition_CFP_071710.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 30 Nov 2016.
- Congressional Budget Office. An introduction to the congressional budget office. 2016. https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/2016-IntroToCBO.pdf. Accessed 29 Aug 2016.
- Consumer Federation of America, Center for Foodborne Illness Research & Prevention, STOP Foodborne Illness, Consumers Union, and Center for Science in the Public Interest. Comments on Docket FDA-2016-N-0321: Risk assessment of foodborne illness associated with pathogens from produce grown in fields amended with untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin. 2016. http://foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/SFC_Comment.Untreated.soil.amendments_071916.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2017.
- Consumers Union. How safe is that chicken? 2010. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2012/05/how-safe-is-that-chicken/index.htm. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Consumers Union. Talking Turkey: our new tests show reasons for concern. 2013. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2013/06/consumer-reports-investigation-talking-turkey/index.htm. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Consumers Union. USDA releases long-awaited proposed rule on labeling mechanically tenderized meat. 2015. http://consumersunion.org/news/usda-releases-long-awaited-proposed-rule-on-labeling-mechanically-tenderized-meat/. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Dall C. How 21st century Cures Act could boost new antibiotics. Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. 2016. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2016/12/how-21st-century-cures-act-could-boost-new-antibiotics. Accessed 17 Feb 2017.
- Donald T. 20 years in food safety: a look backward and beyond. Food Quality & Safety. 2010. http://www.foodqualityandsafety.com/article/20-years-in-food-safety-a-look-back-and-beyond/. Accessed 17 Apr 2017.
- FDA. Melamine pet food recall. 2007. https://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/recallswithdrawals/ucm129575.htm. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- FDA. Science and our food supply. 2014. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodscienceresearch/toolsmaterials/ucm430366.pdf . Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- Federal Register. Pathogen reduction; hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems; final rule. Part II. 9 CFR Part 304, et al. 1996. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/93-016F.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2017.
- Federal Register. Descriptive designation for needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products. 9 CFR 317. 2015. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2015/05/18/2015-11916/descriptive-designation-for-needle%2D%2Dor-blade-tenderized-mechanically-tenderized-beef-products. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Flynn D. Jury verdicts: guilty, guilty and guilty in PCA criminal trial. Food Safety News. 2014. http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2014/09/guilty-guilty-and-guilty-in-pca-criminal-trial-in-albany-ga/#.WBuReeArLs0. Accessed 2 Nov 2016.
- Food &Water Watch. Poultry litter incineration: a false solution to factory farm pollution. 2015a. https://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/sites/default/files/fs_1510_md-poultry-incineration-web.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Food &Water Watch. Trans Pacific Partnership (TTP) delivers a rising tide of imported fish. 2015b. www.foodandwaterwatch.org/sites/default/files/tpp_imported_fish_fs_dec_2015.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2012.
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Fact sheets & presentations. Food Safety Modernization Act. 2016. https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/ucm247546.htm. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- G20 Germany. G20 Leaders´ Declaration: shaping an interconnected world—building resilience. 2017. http://www.g20.org/gipfeldokumente/G20-leaders-declaration.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2017.
- Goetz G. Long history of violations at peanut plant linked to Salmonella outbreak. Food Safety News. 2012. http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2012/11/long-history-of-health-violations-at-peanut-co-linked-to-salmonella-outbreak/#.WQz2j_nyvs0. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Government Accountability Office. Seafood Safety: FDA needs to improve oversight of imported seafood and better leverage limited resources. 2011. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-286. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Government Accountability Office. Food safety: a national strategy is needed to address fragmentation in federal oversight. 2017. http://www.gao.gov/assets/690/682095.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Grocery Manufactures Association: A science and education foundation. Hands on classrooms. 2013–2016. http://handsonclassrooms.org/. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- Hawkins D. Peanut corp. Salmonella settlements approved. Law 360. 2010. https://www.law360.com/articles/191631/peanut-corp-salmonella-settlements-approved. Accessed 10 May 2017.
- Health and Human Services. Office of Inspector General. Challenges remain in FDA’s inspections of domestic food facilities. 2017. https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-14-00420.asp. Accessed 10 Oct 2017.
- Heiman K, Mody R, Johnson S, Griffin P, Gould L. Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United States, 2003–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(8):1293–301. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517704/. Accessed 10 May 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Henao O, Jones T, Vugia D, Griffin P. Foodborne diseases active surveillance network—2 decades of achievements, 1996–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(9):1529–36. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/9/15-0581_article. Accessed 5 May 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council. In: Chapter: Creating an integrated information infrastructure for a risk-based food safety system. In: Enhancing food safety: The role of the Food and Drug Administration. The National Academies Press; 2010, pp. 147–180. http://www.nap.edu/read/12892/chapter/10. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- International Food Information Council Foundation (IFICF). 2016 Food and health survey. 2016. http://www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_FINAL1.pdf . Accessed 10 May 2010.
- Keep Antibiotics Working (KAW) et al. Comments to FDA on Docket No. FDA-2016-D-2635. The judicious use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals; Establishing appropriate durations of therapeutic administration. 2017. http://foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/2017_Joint.Comments_FDA_Animal.antibiotic.use&duration.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2017.
- King L. Institute of Medicine. Improving food safety through a one health approach: workshop summary. National Academies Press; 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114498/. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- Koehler D. Testimony before U.S. House of Representatives’ Subcommittee on regulations and healthcare. Hearing: Impact of food recalls on small businesses. Washington, DC; 2009. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47797/html/CHRG-111hhrg47797.htm. Accessed 4 Nov 2016.
- Lando A. 2010 FDA Food Safety Survey. 2010. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodScienceResearch/ConsumerBehaviorResearch/UCM407008.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Layton L. Suspect peanuts sent to schools. Washington Post. 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/05/AR2009020500743.html. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Leighton P. Mass Salmonella poisoning by the Peanut Corporation of America: state-corporate crime involving food safety. Dordrecht: Springer; 2015. http://www.paulsjusticepage.com/library/PeanutCorp-MassSalmonellaPoisoning.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McGraw M. Iowa woman nearly died from eating a tenderized beef steak. Kansas City Star. 2012. http://www.kansascity.com/news/nation-world/article79516902.html. Accessed 14 April 2017.
- National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). National profile of local health departments. 2011. http://archived.naccho.org/topics/infrastructure/profile/resources/2010report/upload/2010_profile_main_report-web.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
- Nestle N. Safe food: the politics of food safety. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 2010.Google Scholar
- Obama, President. Executive Order 13676. Combating antibiotic resistant bacteria (CARB). 2014. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-09-23/pdf/2014-22805.pdf. Accessed 3 Aug 2016.
- Office of Management and Budget; Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. Descriptive designation for needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products. USDA/FSIS RIN: 0583-AD45. 2015. https://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/eAgendaViewRule?pubId=201504&RIN=0583-AD45. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- Organic Consumers Association. The roots of FSIS workplace violence. 2000. https://www.organicconsumers.org/old_articles/irrad/InspectorView.php. Accessed 8 May 2017.
- Pew Charitable Trusts. About the make our food safe coalition. 2009a. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/analysis/2009/09/02/about-make-our-food-safe. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- Pew Charitable Trusts. 2009 Survey: Pew-commissioned poll finds large majority of Americans want stronger food safety rules. 2009b. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/about/news-room/press-releases/0001/01/01/pewcommissioned-poll-finds-large-majority-of-americans-want-stronger-food-safety-rules. Accessed 2 Aug 2016.
- Pew Charitable Trusts. Letter to U.S. House Appropriations Committee Chairmen Rogers and Cochran, Ranking Member Lowey and Vice Chairwoman Mikulski. 2015a. http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2015/02/fda_coalition_funding_letter_2015.pdf Accessed 21 Nov 2016.
- Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew and partners call for food safety funding. 2015b. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/speeches-and-testimony/2015/10/pew-and-partners-call-for-food-safety-funding. Accessed 5 May 2017.
- Pew Charitable Trusts. Safe Food Project. Priorities. 2016. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/projects/food-safety/priorities. Accessed 21 Aug 2016.
- Produce for Better Health Foundation. State of the Plate, 2015 Study on America’s Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables. 2015. http://www.pbhfoundation.org/pdfs/about/res/pbh_res/State_of_the_Plate_2015_WEB_Bookmarked.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2017.
- Produce News. Peanut butter recall likely to push FDA food-safety reforms. The Produce News. 2009. http://www.producenews.com/a-lead-story/9-news-section/story-cat/3511-3308. Accessed 2 Aug 2016.
- Restaurant Opportunities Centers United (ROCU). Serving while sick. 2010. http://rocunited.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/reports_serving-while-sick_full.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016
- Roberts T. Lack of information is the root of U.S. foodborne illness risk. Choices. 2nd Quarter. 2013;28(2). http://www.foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/Roberts_Lack.of.Info_Choices_2013.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2017.
- Roberts T, Kowalcyk B, Buck P, et al. The long-term health outcomes of selected foodborne pathogens. White Paper. Center for Foodborne Illness Research & Prevention. 2009. http://www.foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/CFI_LTHO_PSP_report_Nov2009_050812.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- Safe Food Coalition (SFC). Background information for letter to Secretary Vilsack about mechanically tenderized (MT) beef products. 2009a. http://foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/2009_SFC_backgrounder_mechanical.tenderized.meat.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2017.
- Safe Food Coalition (SFC). Citizen petition to Secretary Vilsack, Secretary, USDA, to initiate labeling of mechanically tenderized beef products, along with a program of educational outreach to consumers and retailers about this product. 2009b. http://foodborneillness.org/cfi-library/2009_SFC_ltr_to_Vilsack_Meat_Tenderization.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2017.
- Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerging Infect Dis 2011;17(1):7–15. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/1/P1-1101_article. Accessed 6 May 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scharff R. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. J Food Protect. 2012;75(1):123–31. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.662.2667&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Accessed 21 Nov 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- S-FAR—U.S. Stakeholder Forum on Antibiotic Resistance. S-FAR Hill briefing. 2017. http://s-far.org/home-1/. Accessed 8 Mar 2017.
- Supreme Beef Processors Inc. v. United States Department of Agriculture. 2001. 275 F.3d 432. 5th Circuit. Summary: No. 0011008. In: FindLaw. http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-5th-circuit/1429779.html. Accessed 21 Nov 2016.
- Surendran A. An unseen killer’s toll: unsafe meat ended or tragically changed their lives. Philadelphia Inquirer. 2003. http://articles.philly.com/2003-05-19/news/25459439_1_coli-barbara-kowalcyk-human-illness. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
- Tucker-Foreman C. Modern meat. Frontline/PBS Interview. 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/meat/interviews/foreman.html. Accessed 7 May 2017.
- U.S. Department of Justice. Former peanut company president receives largest criminal sentence in food safety case; two others also sentenced for their roles in Salmonella-tainted peanut product outbreak. 2015. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/former-peanut-company-president-receives-largest-criminal-sentence-food-safety-case-two. Accessed 6 May 2017.
- U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. Center for Food Safety and Center for Environmental Health v. Margaret Hamburg and Jeffrey Zients. CV 12 4529. 2012. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/2012-08-29-fsma-complaint-filed_78450.pdf. Accessed 4 Nov 2016.
- U.S. House of Representatives. Letter on S.J. Res 28, a Congressional Review Act resolution. 2016. http://crawford.house.gov/uploadedfiles/catfish_letter.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- U.S. PIRG, California (CalPIRG). Letter to YUM asking them to join other restaurant industry leaders in addressing the overuse of antibiotics in livestock production. 2016. http://calpirg.org/sites/pirg/files/resources/In-N-Out%20Coalition%20Letter%20FINAL.pdf. Accessed 9 Mar 2017.
- USDA/Economic Research Service (ERS). Food-away-from home. 2016a. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-choices-health/food-consumption-demand/food-away-from-home.aspx. Accessed 7 May 2017.
- USDA/Economic Research Service (ERS). Import share of consumption. 2016b. http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/international-markets-trade/us-agricultural-trade/import-share-of-consumption.aspx. Accessed 3 Nov 2016.
- USDA/Economic Research Service (ERS). U.S. food import value by food group. 2016c. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/us-food-imports.aspx#25420. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. [Docket No. 97-013F]. 2003. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/226dd629-d171-4d01-aee9-6dba6e4216ea/04-032N.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Verifying sanitary dressing and process control procedures by off-line inspection program personnel in slaughter operations of cattle of any age. Directive 6410.1 Rev. 1. 2011a. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/4d4f2ca7-af74-4879-b385-4c163c0b361c/6410.1.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Not applying the mark of inspection pending certain test results. [Docket No. FSIS-2005-0044]. 2011b. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/2005-0044.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in certain raw beef products. [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0023]. 2012. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/2010-0023FRN.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Descriptive designation for needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products proposed rule. [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0017]. 2013. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/741a8b94-85b0-4800-963e-ad0517838a02/2008-0017.pdf?MOD=AJPERES . Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). New performance standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in not-ready-to-eat comminuted chicken and Turkey products and raw chicken parts and changes to related agency verification procedures: response to comments and announcement of implementation schedule. [Docket No. FSIS-2014-0023]. 2014a. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/03910f0e-48f8-4111-ba52-490b07c25c24/2014-0023.htm?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 12 Dec 2017
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Descriptive Designation for raw meat and poultry products containing added solutions. [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0012]. 2014b. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/942b0716-42a9-4d0e-8e5f-3ba4d2dfc70d/2010-0012.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Best practices guidance for controlling Listeria monocytogenes in retail delicatessens. [Docket No. FSIS-2013-0038]. 2015a. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/c6fa2945-4ab5-46ba-8bcb-318c8a85a9f9/2013-0038-2015.htm?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Redesign of FSIS sampling methodologies to improve detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef products. Directive 10,010.1 Rev.4. 2015b. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/c100dd64-e2e7-408a-8b27-ebb378959071/10010.1Rev3.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Records to be kept by official establishments and retail stores that grind raw beef products. [Docket No. FSIS-2009-0011]. 2015c. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2015/12/21/2015-31795/records-to-be-kept-by-official-establishments-and-retail-stores-that-grind-raw-beef-products. Accessed 6 May 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). USDA finalizes new food safety measures to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry. Press release. 2016a. https://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdamediafb?contentid=2016/02/0032.xml&printable=true&contentidonly=true. Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
- USDA/Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). Mechanically tenderized infograph. 2016b. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/b7e9dcdd-0d6f-4597-b2d0-b6833f88f336/MTB-Infographic.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 6 May 2017.
- Wegener H, Hald T, Wong L, et al. Salmonella control programs in Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(7):774–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3023435/citedby/. Accessed 8 May 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wheeler M, Fabina J. Descriptive designations for mechanically tenderized beef and added solutions. USDA/FSIS labeling and program delivery staff. Power point. 2016. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/9a96a9f0-54b3-4f2a-a95b-a690fc787733/Descriptive-Designations-MTB-Added-Solutions.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Accessed 30 Nov 2016.
- World Health Organization. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. 2015. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/193736/1/9789241509763_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
- Zuraw L. Revised FSMA provisions need more tweaks. Food Safety News. 2014. http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2014/11/revised-fsma-provisions-need-more-tweaks/#.V47vXLiAOko. Accessed 20 July 2016.
- Zuraw L. What is mechanical tenderizing, and why is it hazardous to your steak? Kaiser Health News. 2016. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/what-is-mechanical-tenderizing-and-why-is-it-hazardous-to-your-steak/. Accessed 30 Nov 2016.