Viewing Angle, Depth and Directionality of 2D and 3D Icons

  • Hsuan LinEmail author
  • Kuo-Liang Huang
  • Wei Lin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10926)


The modern world is faced with an increasingly aging population, so the demand and market of the aged have expanded rapidly. The authors suggest researching the icons suitable for the elderly. The findings herein identify design elements of 2D and 3D icons and may serve as a reference for those engaged in icon design and research in the future. Therefore, this study probed comprehensively into the viewing angles, depth, and directionality of 2D and 3D icons. The useful references for further research and practical applications of website design.


Icon Viewing angle Depth Directionality 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Product DesignTainan University of TechnologyTainanTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Visual Arts and DesignNan-hua UniversityChiayiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Interior DesignHwa Hsia University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan

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