Distributed Models and Tube Models

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
  • Mark I. M. Noble
  • Berend E. Westerhof


The distributed, or 1-D models of the systemic arterial system account for the morphology, oscillatory flow theory, and viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall. Pressures and flow wave shapes and wave travel compare favorably with in vivo data. The 3-D models account for flow profiles in the vessels. Patient-specific models have recently been developed. Distributed models allow the study of wave travel, reflections, the study of wave reflections at different locations in the arterial tree. Simpler models such as single tubes, or two tubes in parallel are discussed in the text. They are limited in their description of wave travel.


Arterial models Single uniform tube model Tapered tube model Wave travel Reflection Amplification 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
    • 2
  • Mark I. M. Noble
    • 3
  • Berend E. Westerhof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam Cardiovascular SciencesVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular TechnologyEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of BioengineeringLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and TherapeuticsUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUnited Kingdom

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