Advertisement

Distributed Radioactivities

  • Roland Diehl
  • Dieter H. Hartmann
  • Nikos Prantzos
Chapter
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 453)

Abstract

Radioactive nuclei freshly produced in compact sources of cosmic nucleosynthesis are ejected into the source surroundings. Then, their decay may be directly observable through characteristic gamma-ray lines, or they may be transported directly to a terrestrial detector. Also, condensation into dust and solids may occur, and then freeze the composition of gas at the dust formation site, which can be inferred from such stardust as found in meteorites. The intrinsic clocks provided by the radioactive decay of each isotope then provide a tool to investigate the characteristics of transport away from the sources, and through interstellar medium, and in the solidification and planet formation phase of our solar system around its earliest history. In this Chapter we discuss what radioactive isotopes such as26Al, 60Fe, 129I, 59Ni, but also very heavy element isotopes such as 244Pu, or positrons from β+ decay can teach us about sources and transport of radioactive nuclei.

References

  1. Agaronyan FA, Atoyan AM (1981) Sov Astron Lett 7:395ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexis A, Jean P, Martin P, Ferrière K (2014) Astron Astrophys 564:A108ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ascasibar Y, Jean P, Bœhm C, Knödlseder J (2006) Mon Not R Astron Soc 368:1695ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asplund M, Grevesse N, Sauval AJ, Scott P (2009) Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 47:481ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bally J (2008) Overview of the orion complex. In: Reipurth B (ed) ASP monograph publications. Handbook of star forming regions, Valencia, vol I. ASP, p 459Google Scholar
  6. Beacom JF, Yüksel H (2006) Phys Rev Lett 97:071102ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binns WR, Wiedenbeck ME, Arnould M et al (2005) Astrophys J 634:351ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binns WR, Israel MH, Christian ER et al (2016) Science 352:677ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair WP, Sankrit R, Raymond JC (2005) Astron J 129:2268ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouchet L, Mandrou P, Roques J-P et al (1991) Astrophys J 383:L45+Google Scholar
  11. Bouchet L, Jourdain E, Roques J-P et al (2008) Astrophys J 679:1315ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouchet L, Roques JP, Jourdain E (2010) Astrophys J 720:1772ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouchet L, Jourdain E, Roques J-P (2015) Astrophys J 801:142ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breitschwerdt D, de Avillez MA (2006) Astron Astrophys 452:L1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breitschwerdt D, Freyberg MJ, Truemper J (eds) (1998) Lecture notes in physics. The local bubble and beyond, vol 506. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. Breitschwerdt D, Feige J, Schulreich MM et al (2016) Nature 532:73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown AGA, de Geus EJ, de Zeeuw PT (1994) Astron Astrophys 289:101ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Burrows DN, Singh KP, Nousek JA, Garmire GP, Good J (1993) Astrophys J 406:97ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bussard RW, Ramaty R, Drachman RJ (1979) Astrophys J 228:928ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bykov AM, Treumann RA (2011) Astron Astrophys Rev 19:42ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cash W, Charles P, Bowyer S et al (1980) Astrophys J 238:L71ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casse M, Paul JA (1982) Astrophys J 258:860ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chatterjee S, Cordes JM, Vlemmings WHT et al (2004) Astrophys J 604:339ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen W, Diehl R, Gehrels N et al (1997) In: Winkler C, Courvoisier TJL, Durouchoux P (eds) The transparent universe. ESA special publication, vol 382, pp 105–+Google Scholar
  25. Cheng LX, Leventhal M, Smith DM (1997) Astrophys J 481:L43+Google Scholar
  26. Chieffi A, Limongi M (2013) Astrophys J 764:21ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chupp EL, Forrest DJ, Higbie PR et al (1973) Nature 241:333ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Churazov E, Sunyaev R, Sazonov S, Revnivtsev M, Varshalovich D (2005) Mon Not R Astron Soc 357:1377+Google Scholar
  29. Clayton DD, Nittler LR (2004) Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 42:39ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Comerón F, Pasquali A, Figueras F, Torra J (2008) Astron Astrophys 486:453ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crocker RM, Ruiter AJ, Seitenzahl IR et al (2017) Nat Astron 1:0135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dame TM, Hartmann D, Thaddeus P (2001) Astrophys J 547:792ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Geus EJ (1992) Astron Astrophys 262:258ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. de Geus EJ, de Zeeuw PT, Lub J (1989) Astron Astrophys 216:44ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. de Zeeuw PT, Hoogerwerf R, de Bruijne JHJ, Brown AGA, Blaauw A (1999) Astron J 117:354ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diehl R (2002) New Astron Rev 46:547ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diehl R (2013) Astron Rev 8:4ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Diehl R (2016) J Phys Conf Ser 703:012001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diehl R, Dupraz C, Bennett K et al (1995) Astron Astrophys 298:445ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Diehl R, Kretschmer K, Plüschke S, Cerviño M, Hartmann DH (2003) In: van der Hucht K, Herrero A, Esteban C (eds) IAU symposium. A massive star odyssey: from main sequence to supernova, vol 212, pp 706–+Google Scholar
  41. Diehl R, Halloin H, Kretschmer K et al (2006a) Nature 439:45ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Diehl R, Halloin H, Kretschmer K et al (2006b) Astron Astrophys 449:1025ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diehl R, Lang MG, Martin P et al (2010) Astron Astrophys 522:A51+Google Scholar
  44. Diehl R, Siegert T, Greiner J, Krause M, Kretschmer K, Lang M, Pleintinger M, Strong AW, Weinberger C, Zhang X (2018) Astron Astrophys 611:A12. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201731815 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ekström S, Georgy C, Eggenberger P et al (2012) Astron Astrophys 537:A146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ellison DC, Drury LO, Meyer J (1997) Astrophys J 487:197ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Endt PM (1990) Nucl Phys A 521:1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fernández D, Figueras F, Torra J (2008) Astron Astrophys 480:735ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fierlinger KM, Burkert A, Ntormousi E et al. (2016) Mon Not R Astron Soc 456:710ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fimiani L, Cook DL, Faestermann T et al. (2016) Phys Rev Lett 116:151104ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fitoussi C, Raisbeck GM, Knie K et al. (2008) Phys Rev Lett 101:121101ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Forestini M, Charbonnel C (1997) Astron Astrophys Suppl Ser 123:241ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Frisch PC (1995) Space Sci Rev 72:499ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fuchs B, Breitschwerdt D, de Avillez MA, Dettbarn C (2009) Space Sci Rev 143:437ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gaczkowski B, Preibisch T, Stanke T et al. (2015) Astron Astrophys 584:A36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gaczkowski B, Roccatagliata V, Flaischlen S et al. (2017) Astron Astrophys 608:A102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gehrz RD, Truran JW, Williams RE, Starrfield S (1998) Publ Astron Soc Pac 110:3ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Genzel R, Stutzki J (1989) Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 27:41ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goswami A, Prantzos N (2000) Bull Astron Soc India 28:305ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Groopman E, Zinner E, Amari S et al (2015) Astrophys J 809:31ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris MJ, Teegarden BJ, Cline TL et al (1998) Astrophys J 501:L55+Google Scholar
  62. Harris MJ, Knödlseder J, Jean P et al (2005) Astron Astrophys 433:L49ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heftrich T, Bichler M, Dressler R et al (2015) Phys Rev C 92:015806ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Higdon JC, Lingenfelter RE, Ramaty R (1998) Astrophys J 509:L33ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Higdon JC, Lingenfelter RE, Rothschild RE (2009) Astrophys J 698:350ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoogerwerf R, de Bruijne JHJ, de Zeeuw PT (2000) Astrophys J 544:L133ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Iliadis C, Champagne A, Chieffi A, Limongi M (2011) Astrophys J Suppl 193:16ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jean P, Knödlseder J, Gillard W et al (2006) Astron Astrophys 445:579ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jean P, Gillard W, Marcowith A, Ferrière K (2009) Astron Astrophys 508:1099ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnson WN, Harnden FR, Haymes RC (1972) Astrophys J 172:L1+Google Scholar
  71. Jones FC, Lukasiak A, Ptuskin VS, Webber WR (2001) Adv Space Res 27:737ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jose J, Hernanz M (1998) Astrophys J 494:680ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kachelrieß M, Neronov A, Semikoz DV (2015) Phys Rev Lett 115:181103ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karakas AI, Lattanzio JC (2014) Publ Astron Soc Aust 31:e030ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kinzer RL, Purcell WR, Johnson WN et al (1996) Astron Astrophys Suppl Ser 120:C317+Google Scholar
  76. Knie K, Korschinek G, Faestermann T et al (2004) Phys Rev Lett 93:171103ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knödlseder J, Dixon D, Bennett K et al (1999) Astron Astrophys 345:813ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Knödlseder J, Cerviño M, Le Duigou J-M et al (2002) Astron Astrophys 390:945ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Knödlseder J, Jean P, Lonjou V et al (2005) Astron Astrophys 441:513ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Korschinek G, Kutschera W (2015) Nucl Phys A 944:190ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Krause M, Fierlinger K, Diehl R et al (2013) Astron Astrophys 550:A49ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Krause M, Diehl R, Böhringer H, Freyberg M, Lubos D (2014) Astron Astrophys 566:A94ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Krause MGH, Diehl R, Bagetakos Y et al (2015) Astron Astrophys 578:A113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Krause M et al. (2018) Astron Astrophys (in press)Google Scholar
  85. Kretschmer K, Diehl R, Krause M et al (2013) Astron Astrophys 559:A99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kuffmeier M, Frostholm Mogensen T, Haugbølle T, Bizzarro M, Nordlund Å (2016) Astrophys J 826:22ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kulsrud RM (2005) Plasma physics for astrophysics. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  88. Kutschera W (2013) In: European physical journal web of conferences, vol 63, pp 03001Google Scholar
  89. Lallement R (2007) Space Sci Rev 130:341ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee T, Papanastassiou DA, Wasserburg GJ (1976) Bull Am Astron Soc 8:457ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Leventhal M, MacCallum CJ, Stang PD (1978) Astrophys J 225:11+Google Scholar
  92. Limongi M, Chieffi A (2006a) New Astron Rev 50:474ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Limongi M, Chieffi A (2006b) Astrophys J 647:483ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Li KA, Lam YH, Qi C, Tang XD, Zhang NT (2016) Phys Rev C 94(6):065807.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.94.065807 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lingenfelter RE, Ramaty R (1978) Phys Today 31:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lozinskaya TA, Pravdikova VV, Finoguenov AV (2002) Astron Lett 28:223ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ludwig P, Bishop S, Egli R et al (2016) Proc Natl Acad Sci 113:9232ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. MacPherson GJ, Davis AM, Zinner EK (1995) Meteoritics 30:365ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. MacPherson GJ, Bullock ES, Janney PE et al (2010) Astrophys J 711:L117ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mahoney WA, Ling JC, Wheaton WA, Jacobson AS (1984) Astrophys J 286:578ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Maíz-Apellániz J (2004) In: Alfaro EJ, Pérez E, Franco J (eds) How does the galaxy work?. Astrophysics and space science library, vol 315, pp 231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin P, Knödlseder J, Diehl R, Meynet G (2009) Astron Astrophys 506:703ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Martin P, Knödlseder J, Meynet G, Diehl R (2010) Astron Astrophys 511:A86+Google Scholar
  104. Martin P, Strong AW, Jean P, Alexis A, Diehl R (2012) Astron Astrophys 543:A3ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mewaldt RA, Yanasak NE, Wiedenbeck ME et al (2001) Space Sci Rev 99:27ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Meyer J (1985) Astrophys J Suppl 57:151ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Meyer J, Drury LO, Ellison DC (1997) Astrophys J 487:182ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Meynet G, Arnould M, Prantzos N, Paulus G (1997) Astron Astrophys 320:460ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Meynet G, Hirschi R, Maeder A, Ekström S (2006) In: Montmerle T, Kahane C (eds) EAS publications series, vol 19, pp 85–100Google Scholar
  110. Naya JE, Barthelmy SD, Bartlett LM et al (1996) Nature 384:44ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Neronov A, Meynet G (2016) Astron Astrophys 588:A86ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nittler LR, Alexander CMO, Gallino R et al (2008) Astrophys J 682:1450ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Oberlack U, Bennett K, Bloemen H et al (1996) Astron Astrophys Suppl Ser 120:C311ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. Olano CA (1982) Astron Astrophys 112:195ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Ore A, Powell JL (1949) Phys Rev 75:1696ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ostdiek KM, Anderson TS, Bauder WK et al (2017) Phys Rev C 95:055809ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Palacios A, Meynet G, Vuissoz C et al (2005) Astron Astrophys 429:613ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Panther FH, Crocker RM, Birnboim Y, Seitenzahl IR, Ruiter AJ (2018) Mon Not R Astron Soc 474:L17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Parikh A, José J, Karakas A, Ruiz C, Wimmer K (2014) Phys Rev C 90:038801ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pecaut MJ, Mamajek EE (2016) Mon Not R Astron Soc 461:794ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Perrot CA, Grenier IA (2003) Astron Astrophys 404:519ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pignatari M, Herwig F, Hirschi R et al (2016) Astrophys J Suppl 225:24ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Plüschke S, Diehl R, Schönfelder V et al (2001a) In: Gimenez A, Reglero V, Winkler C (eds) Exploring the gamma-ray universe. ESA special publication, vol 459, pp 55–58ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Plüschke S, Kretschmer K, Diehl R, Hartmann DH, Oberlack UG (2001b) In: Gimenez A, Reglero V, Winkler C (eds) Exploring the gamma-ray universe. ESA special publication, vol 459, pp 91–95ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Plüschke S, Cerviño M, Diehl R et al (2002) New Astron Rev 46:535ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pöppel W (1997) Fundam Cosm Phys 18:1ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Pöppel WGL, Bajaja E, Arnal EM, Morras R (2010) Astron Astrophys 512:A83+Google Scholar
  128. Prantzos N (1993) Astron Astrophys Suppl Ser 97:119ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Prantzos N (2004) Astron Astrophys 420:1033ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Prantzos N (2006a) αp 449:869Google Scholar
  131. Prantzos N (2006b) Astron Astrophys 449:869ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Prantzos N (2012) Astron Astrophys 538:A80ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Prantzos N, Diehl R (1996) Phys Rep 267:1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Prantzos N, Arnould M, Arcoragi JP, Casse M (1985) In: Jones FC (ed) International cosmic ray conference, vol 3, pp 167–170Google Scholar
  135. Prantzos N, Boehm C, Bykov AM et al (2011) Rev Mod Phys 83:1001ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Preibisch T, Zinnecker H (1999) Astron J 117:2381ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Preibisch T, Mamajek E (2008) In: Reipurth B (ed) The nearest OB association: Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco OB2), pp 235Google Scholar
  138. Preibisch T, Brown AGA, Bridges T, Guenther E, Zinnecker H (2002) Astron J 124:404ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ptuskin VS, Soutoul A (1998) Space Sci Rev 86:225ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Purcell WR, Grabelsky DA, Ulmer MP et al (1993) Astrophys J 413:L85ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Purcell WR, Cheng L-X, Dixon DD (1997) Astrophys J 491:725+Google Scholar
  142. Ragot BR (1999) Astrophys J 518:974ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ragot BR (2006) Astrophys J 642:1163ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ramaty R, Kozlovsky B, Lingenfelter RE (1979) Astrophys J Suppl 40:487ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Robin AC, Reylé C, Derrière S, Picaud S (2003) Astron Astrophys 409:523ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rugel G, Faestermann T, Knie K et al (2009) Phys Rev Lett 103:072502ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Schramm DN, Tera F, Wasserburg GJ (1970) Earth Planet Sci Lett 10:44ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Schulreich MM, Breitschwerdt D, Feige J, Dettbarn C (2017) Astron Astrophys 604:A81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Siegert T (2017) PhD thesis, TU MunichGoogle Scholar
  150. Siegert T, Diehl R (2017) In: Kubono S, Kajino T, Nishimura S, Isobe T, Nagataki S, Shima T, Takeda Y (eds) 14th international symposium on nuclei in the cosmos (NIC2016), pp 020305Google Scholar
  151. Siegert T, Diehl R, Greiner J et al (2016a) Nature 531:341ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Siegert T, Diehl R, Khachatryan G et al (2016b) Astron Astrophys 586:A84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Siegert T, Diehl R, Vincent AC et al (2016c) ArXiv e-prints 1608.00393Google Scholar
  154. Sieverding A, Martínez-Pinedo G, Langanke K, Heger A (2017) In: Kubono S, Kajino T, Nishimura S, Isobe T, Nagataki S, Shima T, Takeda Y (eds) 14th international symposium on nuclei in the cosmos (NIC2016), pp 020701Google Scholar
  155. Sizun P, Cassé M, Schanne S (2006) Phys Rev D 74:063514ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Skinner G, Diehl R, Zhang X-L, Jean P (2014) Proc Sci INT2014:054Google Scholar
  157. Slesnick CL, Hillenbrand LA, Carpenter JM (2008) Astrophys J 688:377ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith DM (2004) In: Schoenfelder V, Lichti G, Winkler C (eds) 5th integral workshop on the integral universe. ESA special publication, vol 552, pp 45–+Google Scholar
  159. Soutoul A, Casse M, Juliusson E (1978) Astrophys J 219:753ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Srinivasan G, Chaussidon M (2013) Earth Planet Sci Lett 374:11ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Strong AW, Moskalenko IV, Ptuskin VS (2007) Annu Rev Nucl Part Sci 57:285–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nucl.57.090506.123011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sturner SJ, Naya JE (1999) Astrophys J 526:200ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sukhbold T, Ertl T, Woosley SE, Brown JM, Janka H-T (2016) Astrophys J 821:38ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sunyaev R, Churazov E, Gilfanov M et al (1992) Astrophys J 389:L75+Google Scholar
  165. Taylor JH, Cordes JM (1993) Astrophys J 411:674ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Thielemann F-K, Nomoto K, Hashimoto M-A (1996) Astrophys J 460:408ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tibaldo L, Grenier IA (2013) Nucl Phys B Proc Suppl 239:70ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Timmes FX, Woosley SE, Hartmann DH et al (1995) Astrophys J 449:204ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Toptygin IN (1985) Cosmic rays in interplanetary magnetic fields. D. Reidel Publishing Co., DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Uyanıker B, Fürst E, Reich W, Aschenbach B, Wielebinski R (2001) Astron Astrophys 371:675ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. van der Hucht KA (2001) New Astron Rev 45:135ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Voss R, Diehl R, Hartmann DH et al (2009) Astron Astrophys 504:531ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Voss R, Diehl R, Vink JS, Hartmann DH (2010) Astron Astrophys 520:A51+Google Scholar
  174. Wallner A, Feige J, Kinoshita N et al (2016) Nature 532:69ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wang W, Harris MJ, Diehl R et al (2007) Astron Astrophys 469:1005ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wang W, Lang MG, Diehl R et al (2009) Astron Astrophys 496:713ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wasserburg GJ, Lee T, Papanastassiou DA (1977) Meteoritics 12:377ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. Weidenspointner G, Shrader CR, Knödlseder J (2006a) Astron Astrophys 450:1013+Google Scholar
  179. Weidenspointner G, Shrader CR, Knödlseder J et al (2006b) Astron Astrophys 450:1013ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Weidenspointner G, Skinner G, Jean P et al (2008) Nature 451:159ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Welsh BY, Shelton RL (2009) Astrophys Space Sci 323:1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Westphal AJ, Bradley JP (2004) Astrophys J 617:1131ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wiedenbeck ME, Binns WR, Christian ER et al (1999) Astrophys J 523:L61ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wiedenbeck ME, Binns WR, Cummings AC et al (2007) In: von Steiger R, Gloeckler G, Mason GM (eds) An overview of the origin of galactic cosmic rays as inferred from observations of heavy ion composition and spectra. Springer, New York, pp 415–+Google Scholar
  185. Wilking BA, Gagné M, Allen LE (2008) In: Reipurth B (ed) Star formation in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud, pp 351Google Scholar
  186. Woosley SE, Heger A (2007) Phys Rep 442:269ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Woosley SE, Weaver TA (1994) Astrophys J 423:371ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Woosley SE, Weaver TA (1995) Astrophys J Suppl 101:181ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yanasak NE, Wiedenbeck ME, Mewaldt RA et al (2001) Astrophys J 563:768ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Zinnecker H, Yorke HW (2007) Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 45:481ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Diehl
    • 1
  • Dieter H. Hartmann
    • 2
  • Nikos Prantzos
    • 3
  1. 1.Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany
  2. 2.Clemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  3. 3.Institut d’AstrophysiqueParisFrance

Personalised recommendations