The Relativity of Code, Energy, and Mass Versus the Relativity of Energy and Mass

  • Tara Karimi


As a puzzling feature of nature, biological systems possess several aspects of autonomy including self-organization, self-replication, self-fueling, and self-regulation. It is initially difficult to accept the idea that each living creature is merely a chemical system. Yet, scientifically, biological systems are mainly composed of four natural chemical element, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Considering that biological systems are highly connected to the other inanimate elements in nature, several challenging questions remain to be answered;
  • What are the regulatory mechanisms behind the autonomous properties of biological systems that distinguish them from inanimate elements and non-living systems in nature?

  • Can we explain all autonomous properties of biological systems applying the currently defined natural laws of physics and chemistry?

Current understanding of natural sciences is limited to the relativity of energy and mass while missing code (embedded information in molecules) as the third dimension of nature’s law. Here, in this chapter, we first discuss the foundation of chemistry and physics in both non-living and living systems. Then, we introduce code as the third dimension of nature’s law, through the capacity of information storage in molecules (coding capacity of biomolecules). Considering the coding capacity of biomolecules, as an additional factor beyond the energy storage in molecules, we define a new concept of the relativity of code, energy, and mass. The relativity of code, energy, and mass as a new platform in science, unveils the molecular logic behind several unknown features of nature, such as autonomous properties of biological systems.


Algorithmic Logic of life Origin of life Chemistry of Life Autonomy in Biological Systems Self- assembly Self-organization Self-fueling Self-replication and Self-regeneration. Relativity of Energy and Mass Relativity of Code Energy and Mass 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tara Karimi
    • 1
  1. 1.Tulane Medical CenterTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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