The topics which may be deduced about the nature of a flowing fluid without referring to the dynamics of continuum are explored in this chapter. First, the flow lines embracing streamlines, pathlines, and streaklines are discussed. These flow lines are not only useful for flow visualization, but also supply means by which solutions to governing equations of flow problems may be interpreted physically. Second, the concepts of circulation and vorticity are introduced, with their full usefulness becoming apparent in discussing the balance equations of fluid motion. Streamline and vorticity lead to the concepts of stream tube and stream filament, and vortex tube and vortex filament, respectively. Discussions on the kinematics of stream and vortex filaments are provided at the end, which consists part of the Helmholtz equations. The other part, i.e., the dynamics of vorticity, will be discussed in Sect. 8.1.
- R.S. Brodkey, The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Dover, New York, 1967)Google Scholar
- Y.A. Cengel, J.M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 3rd edn. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2014)Google Scholar
- D.F. Elger, B.C. Williams, C.T. Crowe, J.A. Roberson, Engineering Fluid Mechanics, 10th edn. (Wiley, Singapore, 2014)Google Scholar
- K. Hutter, Y. Wang, Fluid and Thermodynamics. Volume 1: Basic Fluid Mechanics (Springer, Berlin, 2016)Google Scholar
- R.H.F. Pao, Fluid Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1961)Google Scholar
- A.J. Smith, A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 2000)Google Scholar
- C.S. Yih, Fluid Mechanics: A Concise Introduction to the Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969)Google Scholar