Advertisement

4 A Turbulent Story: Mediterranean Contourites and Cold-Water Corals

  • Michele RebescoEmail author
  • Marco Taviani
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 9)

Abstract

Dynamic bottom current regimes govern cold-water corals as well as contourites. We provide an overview of the general aspects of both research fields, with specific attention to the Mediterranean Sea region, which has the particularity to be a climatically-sensitive mid-latitude semi-enclosed basin. In this area there are many examples of along-slope contourite deposits (known as contourite drifts), typically with an along-slope, elongated mounded shape adjacent to a concave moat. Likewise, a number of thriving coral sites, together with sparse occurrences, are present in the central and western Mediterranean, with large coral mounds known so far only in the Alborán Sea. In the Mediterranean Sea both contourite drift and cold-water corals seem mainly related to the Levantine Intermediate Water, but their strict co-existence has still to be ascertained in many cases. Further research should address this aspect and the great potential of combining the two complementary kinds of climate paleo-archives provided by cold-water corals and contourites.

Keywords

Cold-water corals Contourites Mediterranean Sea Bottom currents Suspended matter 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to Eleonora Martorelli and Dirk Hebbeln for their critical comments that helped improving the clarity of the text. This chapter is part of EU CoCoNet project, (contract no. 287844) EVER-EST Horizon 2020 project (contract no. 674907), DG Environment programme IDEM (grant agreement No 11.0661 /2017/750680/SUB/EN V.C2), and Flag Project Ritmare Ricerca Italiana per il Mare). Ismar-Bologna scientific contribution n. 1917.

References

  1. Adkins JF, Boyle E, Curry WB, et al (2003) Stable isotopes in deep-sea corals and a new mechanism for “vital effects”. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:1129–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allouc J (1990) Quaternary crusts on slopes of the Mediterranean Sea: a tentative explanation for their genesis. Mar Geol 94:205–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amelio M, Martorelli E (2008) Seismo-stratigraphic characters of paleocontourites along the Calabro-Tyrrhenian margin (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Mar Geol 252:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angeletti L, Taviani M, Canese S, et al (2014) New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea. Mediterr Mar Sci 15:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bargain A, Marchese F, Salvini A, et al (2017) Santa Maria di Leuca Province (Mediterranean Sea): an identification of suitable mounds for probable coral settlements using two statistical methods. Front Mar Sci 4:338.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bensi M, Rubino A, Cardin V, et al (2013) Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003–2010. J Geophys Res-Oceans 118:931–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camerlenghi A, Crise A, Accerboni E, et al (1997) Ten-month observation of the bottom current regime across a sediment drif of the Pacific margin of the Antarctic peninsula. Antarct Sci 9:424–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng H, Adkins J, Edwards RL, et al (2000) U–Th dating of deep-sea corals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:2401–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conti MA, De Girasoli DE, Frezza V, et al (2013) Repeated events of hardground formation and colonisation by endo-epilithozoans on the sediment-starved pontine continental slope (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Mar Geol 336:184–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies AJ, Duineveld GCA, Lavaleye MSS, et al (2009) Downwelling and deep-water bottom currents as food supply mechanisms to the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) at the Mingulay reef complex. Limnol Oceanogr 54:620–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dorschel B, Hebbeln D, Foubert A, et al (2007) Hydrodynamics and cold-water coral facies distribution related to recent sedimentary processes at Galway mound west of Ireland. Mar Geol 244:184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dorschel B, Hebbeln D, Rüggeberg A, et al (2005) Growth and erosion of a cold-water coral covered carbonate mound in the Northeast Atlantic during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 233:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dubois-Dauphin Q, Montagna P, Siani G, et al (2017) Hydrological variations of the intermediate water masses of the western Mediterranean Sea during the past 20 ka inferred from neodymium isotopic composition in foraminifera and cold-water corals. Clim Past 13:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duineveld GCA, Lavaleye MSS, Bergman MJN, et al (2007) Trophic structure of a cold-water coral mound community (Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic) in relation to the near-bottom particle supply and current regime. Bull Mar Sci 81:449–467Google Scholar
  15. Ercilla G, Juan C, Hernández-Molina FJ, et al (2016) Significance of bottom currents in deep-sea morphodynamics: an example from the Alboran Sea. Mar Geol 378:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fanelli E, Delbono I, Ivaldi R, et al (2017) Cold – water coral Madrepora oculata in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean): historical and recent findings. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosys 27:965.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Faugères JC, Stow DAV (2008) Contourite drifts: nature, evolution and controls. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 257–288Google Scholar
  18. Fink HG, Wienberg C, De Pol-Holz R, et al (2015) Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Mediterranean cold-water corals (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) during the past 14,000 years. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 103:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fink HG, Wienberg C, De Pol-Holz R, et al (2013) Cold-water coral growth in the Alboran Sea related to high productivity during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Mar Geol 339:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fink HG, Wienberg C, Hebbeln D, et al (2012) Oxygen control on Holocene cold-water coral development in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 62:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foglini F, Campiani E, Trincardi F (2016) The reshaping of the south west Adriatic margin by cascading of dense shelf waters. Mar Geol 375:64–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frank N, Freiwald A, López Correa M, et al (2011) Northeastern Atlantic cold-water coral reefs and climate. Geology 39:743–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frederiksen R, Jensen A, Westerberg H (1992) The distribution of the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa around the Faroe Islands and the relation to internal tidal mixing. Sarsia 77:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freiwald A, Beuck L, Rüggeberg A, et al (2009) The white coral community in the Central Mediterranean Sea revealed by ROV surveys. Oceanography 22:58–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, et al (2004) Cold-water coral reefs, UNEP-WCMC biodiversity series 22. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaudin M, Berné S, Jouanneau JM, et al (2006) Massive sand beds attributed to deposition by dense water cascades in the Bourcart canyon head, Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Mar Geol 234:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Giorgetti A, Crise A, Laterza R, et al (2003) Water masses and bottom boundary layer dynamics above a sediment drift of the Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin. Antarct Sci 15:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonthier E, Faugères JC, Stow DAV (1984) Contourite facies of the Faro Drift, Gulf of Cadiz. In: Stow DAV, Piper DJW (eds) Fine grained sediments, deepwater processes and facies. Geological Society special publication, vol 15. Geological Society, London, pp 275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gori A, Orejas C, Madurell T, et al (2013) Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean). Biogeosciences 10:2049–2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanquiez V, Mulder T, Lecroart P, et al (2007) High resolution seafloor images in the Gulf of Cadiz, Iberian margin. Mar Geol 246:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hebbeln D, Van Rooij D, Wienberg C (2016) Good neighbours shaped by vigorous currents: cold-water coral mounds and contourites in the North Atlantic. Mar Geol 378:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hebbeln D, Wienberg C, Beuck L, et al (2009) Report and preliminary results of RV POSEIDON cruise POS 385 ‘cold-water corals of the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea)’. Berichte, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften: Universität Bremen; Faro – Toulon, May 29–June 16, 273, 79 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Hebbeln D, Wienberg C, Bartels M, et al (2015) MoccoMeBo climate-driven development of Moroccan cold-water coral mounds revealed by MeBo-drilling: Atlantica vs. Mediterranean settings – Cruise MSM36 – February 18 – March 17, 2014 – Malaga (Spain) – Las Palmas (Spain). MARIA S. MERIAN-Berichte, MSM36, 47 pp, DFGSenatskommission für Ozeanographie,  https://doi.org/10.2312/cr_msm36
  34. Hebbeln D, Wienberg C, Wintersteller P, et al (2014) Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico. Biogeosciences 11:1799–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hecht A, Pinardi N, Robinson AR (1988) Currents, water masses, eddies and jets in the Mediterranean Levantine Basin. J Phys Oceanogr 18:1320–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heezen BC, Hollister CD (1964) Deep sea current evidence from abyssal sediments. Mar Geol 1:141–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Henriet JP, Hamoumi N, da Silva AC, et al (2014) Carbonate mounds: from paradox to world heritage. Mar Geol 352:89–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Henry LA, Frank N, Hebbeln D, et al (2014) Global Ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 88:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Henry LA, Davies AJ, Roberts JM (2010) Beta diversity of cold-water coral reef communities off western Scotland. Coral Reefs 29:427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hernández-Molina FJ, Llave E, Preu B (2014) Contourite processes associated to the Mediterranean outflow water after its exit from the Gibraltar Strait: global and conceptual implications. Geology 10:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hernández-Molina FJ, Stow DAV, Alvarez-Zarikian C, et al (2013) IODP expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and off West Iberia: decoding the environmental significance of the Mediterranean outflow water and its global influence. Sci Drill 16:1–11  https://doi.org/10.5194/sd-16-1-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hollister CD, Heezen BC (1972) Geological effects of ocean bottom currents: western North Atlantic. In: Gordon AL (ed) Studies in physical oceanography, vol 2. Gordon and Breach, New York, pp 37–66Google Scholar
  43. Hübscher C, Dullo C, Flögel S, et al (2010) Contourite drift evolution and related coral growth in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and its gateways. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99:191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hüneke H, Stow DAV (2008) Identification of ancient contourites: problems and palaeoceanographic significance. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 323–344Google Scholar
  45. Huvenne VAI, Van Rooij D, De Mol B, et al (2009) Sediment dynamics and palaeo-environmental context at key stages in the challenger cold-water coral mound formation: clues from sediment deposits at the mound base. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 56:2263–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kenyon NH, Akhmetzhanov AM, Wheeler AJ, et al (2003) Giant carbonate mud mounds in the southern Rockall trough. Mar Geol 195:5–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lascaratos A, Roether W, Nittis K, et al (1999) Recent changes in deep water formation and spreading in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: a review. Prog Oceanogr 44:5–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lo Iacono C, Gracia E, Ranero C, et al (2014) The West Melilla cold water coral mounds, eastern Alboran Sea: morphological characterization and environmental context. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. López Correa M, Montagna P, Vendrell-Simón B, et al (2010) Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C), trace and minor element compositions of recent scleractinians and last glacial bivalves at the Santa Maria di Leuca deep-water coral province, Ionian Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:471–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Madurell T, Orejas C, Requena S, et al (2012) The benthic communities of the cap de Creus canyon. In: Würtz M (ed) Mediterranean submarine canyons: ecology and governance. Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain, IUCN, pp 123–132Google Scholar
  51. Marani M, Argnani A, Roveri M, et al (1993) Sediment drifts and erosion surfaces in the Central Mediterranean: seismic evidence of bottom-current activity. Sediment Geol 82:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martín-Chivelet J, Fregenal-Martínez MA, Chacón B (2008) Traction structures in contourites. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 159–182Google Scholar
  53. Martorelli E, Petroni G, Chiocci FL (2011) Contourites offshore Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel, Mediterranean Sea): depositional, erosional and biogenic elements. Geo-Mar Lett 31:481–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCulloch M, Taviani M, Montagna P, et al (2010) Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the younger Dryas. Earth Planet Sc Lett 298:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCulloch M, Trotter J, Montagna P, et al (2012) Resilience of cold-water scleractinian corals to ocean acidification: boron isotopic systematics of pH and saturation state up-regulation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 87:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mienis F, de Stigter HC, White M, et al (2007) Hydrodynamic controls on cold-water coral growth and carbonate-mound development at the SW and SE Rockall trough margin, NE Atlantic ocean. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 54:1655–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miller AR (1972) Speculation concerning bottom circulation in the Mediterranean Sea in. In: Stanley DJ (ed) The Mediterranean Sea: a natural sedimentation laboratory. Hutchinson and Ross, Dowden, pp 37–42Google Scholar
  58. Millot C (2009) Another description of the Mediterranean Sea outflow. Prog Oceanogr 82:101–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miramontes E, Cattaneo A, Jouet G, et al (2016) The Pianosa contourite depositional system (northern Tyrrhenian Sea): drift morphology and Plio-quaternary stratigraphic evolution. Mar Geol 378:20–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Montagna P, McCulloch M, Douville E, et al (2014) Li/Mg systematics in scleractinian corals: calibration of the thermometer. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 132:288–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Montagna P, McCulloch M, Taviani M, et al (2006) Phosphorus in cold-water corals as a proxy for seawater nutrient chemistry. Science 312:1788–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Montagna P, McCulloch M, Taviani M, et al (2005) High-resolution trace and minor element compositions in deep-water scleractinian corals (Desmophyllum dianthus) from the Mediterranean Sea and the great Australian bight. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1109–1126Google Scholar
  63. Montagna P, Silenzi S, McCulloch M, et al (2011) Marine climate archives and geochemical proxies: a review and future investigations on the Mediterranean Sea. In: Brugnoli E, Cavaretta G, et al (eds) Marine research at CNR, Dipartimento Terra e Ambiente, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma, pp 809–822Google Scholar
  64. Mutti E, Carminatti M (2012) Deep-water sands in the Brazilian offshore basins. AAPG Search and Discovery, Article 30219. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2012/30219mutti/ndx_mutti.pdf
  65. Noé S, Titschack J, Freiwald A, et al (2006) From sediment to rock: diagenetic processes of hardground formation in deep-water carbonate mounds of the NE Atlantic. Facies 52:183–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Orejas C, Gori A, Lo Iacono C, et al (2009) Cold-water corals in the cap de Creus canyon (North-Western Mediterranean): spatial distribution, density and antropogenic impact. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pellegrini C, Maselli V, Trincardi F (2016) Pliocene–Quaternary contourite depositional system along the south-western Adriatic margin: changes in sedimentary stacking pattern and associated bottom currents. Geo-Mar Lett 36:67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pinardi N, Masetti E (2000) Variability of the large scale general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and modelling: a review. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:153–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rebesco M (2005) Contourites. In: Selley RC, Cocks LRM, Plimer IR (eds) Encyclopedia of geology. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 513–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rebesco M (2014) Contourites. In: Elias SA (ed) Reference module in earth systems and environmental sciences. Elsevier.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09094-1 Google Scholar
  71. Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) (2008) Contourites, developments in sedimentology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 60:3–10Google Scholar
  72. Rebesco M, Stow DAV (2001) Seismic expression of contourites and related deposits: a preface. Mar Geophys Res 22:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rebesco M, Hernández-Molina J, van Rooij D, et al (2014) Contourites and associated sediments controlled by deep-water circulation processes: state-of-the-art and future considerations. Mar Geol 352:111–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reed JK (2002) Deep-water Oculina coral reefs of Florida: biology, impacts, and management. Hydrobiologia 471:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reeder MS, Rothwell G, Stow DAV (2002) The Sicilian gateway: anatomy of the deep-water connection between east and West Mediterranean basins. In: Stow DAV, Pudsey CJ, Howe JA, et al (eds) Deep-water contourite systems: modern drifts and ancient series, seismic and sedimentary characteristics. Geological Society Memoir, vol 22. The Geological Society, London, pp 171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Remia A, Montagna P, Taviani M (2004) Submarine diagenetic products on the sediment-starved Gorgona slope, Tuscan archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea). Chem Ecol 20:131–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Remia A, Taviani M (2005) Shallow-buried Pleistocene Madrepora-dominated coral mounds on a muddy continental slope, Tuscan archipelago, NE Tyrrhenian Sea. Facies 50:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robinson AR, Leslie WG, Theocharis A, et al (2001) Mediterranean Sea circulation. In: Steele JH et al (eds) Encyclopedia of ocean sciences. Academic Press, Boston, pp 1689–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Robinson LF, Adkins JF, Frank N (2014) The geochemistry of deep-sea coral skeletons: a review of vital effects and applications for palaeoceanography. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:184–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roveri M (2002) Sediment drifts of the Corsica Channel, northern Tyrrhenian Sea. In: Stow DAV, Pudsey CJ, Howe JA, et al (eds) Deep-water contourite systems: modern drifts and ancient series, seismic and sedimentary characteristics. Geological Society Memoir, vol 22. The Geological Society, London, pp 191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rubino A, Falcini F, Zanchettin D (2012) Abyssal undular vortices in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Nat Commun 3:1836.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rüggeberg A, Fietzke J, Liebetrau V (2008) Stable strontium isotopes (δ88/86Sr) in cold-water corals—a new proxy for reconstruction of intermediate ocean wáter temperatures. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269:570–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Savini A, Corselli (2010) High-resolution bathymetry and acoustic geophysical data from Santa Maria di Leuca cold water coral province (Northern Ionian Sea-Apulian continental slope). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:326–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Savini A, Corselli C, Loubrieu B, et al (2010) Deep sea habitat mapping at the Sant Maria di Leuca cold water coral province: results from small to large scale seafloor mapping at one representative site. Rapp Comm Int Mer Medit 39:62Google Scholar
  85. Savini A, Vertino A, Marchese F, et al (2014) Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability. PLoS One 9:e87108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Savini A, Marchese F, Verdicchio G (2016) Submarine slide topography and the distribution of vulnerable marine ecosystems: a case study in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). In: Lamarche G, Mountjoy J, Bull S, et al (eds) Submarine mass movements and their consequences: 7th international symposium, advances in natural and technological hazards research. Springer International Publishing, pp 163–170Google Scholar
  87. Schattner U, Gurevich M, Kanari M, et al (2015) Levant jet system—effect of post LGM seafloor currents on Nile sediment transport in the eastern Mediterranean. Sediment Geol 329:28–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shanmugam G (2006) Deep-water processes and facies models: implications for sandstone petroleum reservoirs: 5 (handbook of petroleum exploration and production). Elsevier Science, 496 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Shanmugam G (2008) Deep-water bottom currents and their deposits. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 59–81Google Scholar
  90. Shanmugam G (2013) New perspectives on deep-water sandstones: implications. Pet Explor Dev 40:316–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Somoza L, Medialdea T, León R, et al (2012) Structure of mud volcano systems and pockmarks in the region of the Ceuta Contourite depositional system (western Alborán Sea). Mar Geol 332–334:4–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stalder C, Vertino A, Rosso A, et al (2015) Microfossils, a key to unravel cold-water carbonate mound evolution through time: evidence from the eastern Alboran Sea. PLoS One 10:e0140223PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stow DAV, Faugères JC (2008) Contourite facies and the facies model. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 223–256Google Scholar
  94. Stow DAV, Hernández-Molina FJ, Llave E, et al (2013) The Cadiz Contourite Channel: Sandy contourites, bedforms and dynamic current interaction. Mar Geol 343:99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stow DAV, Hernández-Molina FJ, Llave E, et al (2009) Bedform-velocity matrix: the estimation of bottom current velocity from bedform observations. Geology 37:327–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stow DAV, Hunter S, Wilkinson D, et al (2008) The nature of contourite deposition. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 143–156Google Scholar
  97. Stow DAV, Pudsey CJ, Howe JA, et al (eds) (2002a) Deep-water contourite systems: modern drifts and ancient series, seismic and sedimentary characteristics. Geological Society Memoir, vol 22. The Geological Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Stow DAV, Ogawa Y, Lee IT, et al (2002b) Neogene contourites, Miura-Boso forearc basin, SE Japan. In: Stow DAV, Pudsey CJ, Howe JA, et al (eds) Deep-water contourite systems: modern drifts and ancient series, seismic and sedimentary characteristics. Geological Society Memoir, vol 22. The Geological Society, London, pp 409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stow DAV, Reading HG, Collinson J (1996) Deep seas. In: Reading HG (ed) Sedimentary environments, 3rd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 395–453Google Scholar
  100. Stow DAV, Taira A, Ogawa Y, et al (1998) Volcaniclastic sediments, process interaction and depositional setting of the Mio-Pliocene Miura group, SE Japan. Sediment Geol 115:351–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Antolini B, et al (2011a) Geo-biology of Mediterranean deep-water coral ecosystems. In: Brugnoli E, Cavaretta G, et al (eds) Marine research at CNR, Dipartimento Terra e Ambiente, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma, pp 705–720Google Scholar
  102. Taviani M, Vertino A, López Correa M, et al (2011b) Pleistocene to recent scleractinian deep-water corals and coral facies in the eastern Mediterranean. Facies 57:579–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Beuck L, et al (2016) On and off the beaten track: megafaunal sessile life and Adriatic cascading processes. Mar Geol 375:146–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Canese S, et al (2015) The “Sardinian cold-water Coral Province” in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Taviani M, Freiwald A, Zibrowius H (2005a) Deep coral growth in the Mediterranean Sea: an overview. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–156Google Scholar
  106. Taviani M, Remia A, Corselli C, et al (2005b) First geo-marine survey of living cold-water Lophelia reefs in the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean basin). Facies 50:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Toscano F, Raspini A (2005) Epilithozoan fauna associated with ferromanganese crustgrounds on the continental slope segment between Capri and li Galli Islands (bay of Salerno, northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Facies 50:427–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Toucanne S, Jouet G, Ducassou E, et al (2012) A 130,000-year record of Levantine intermediate water flow variability in the Corsica trough, western Mediterranean Sea. Quat Sci Rev 33:55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Trincardi F, Foglini F, Verdicchio G, et al (2007) The impact of cascading currents on the Bari canyon system, SW-Adriatic margin (Central Mediterranean). Mar Geol 246:208–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Van Rooij D, Blamart D, De Mol L (2011) Cold-water coral mounds on the pen Duick escarpment, gulf of Cadiz: the MiCROSYSTEMS project approach. Mar Geol 282:102–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van Rooij D, Blamart D, Richter T, et al (2007a) Quaternary sediment dynamics in the Belgica mound province, porcupine Seabight: ice-rafting events and contour current processes. Int J Earth Sci 96:121–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Van Rooij D, Blamart D, Kozachenko M, et al (2007b) Small mounded contourite drifts associated with deep-water coral banks, porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic ocean. In: Viana AR, Rebesco M (eds) Economic and palaeoceanographic importance of contourite deposits. Geological Society Memoir, vol 276. The Geological Society, London, pp 225–244Google Scholar
  113. van Weering TCE, de Haas H, Akhmetzanov AM, et al (2003) Giant carbonate mounds along the porcupine and SW Rockall trough margins. In: Mienert J, Weaver P (eds) European margin sediment dynamics: side-scan sonar and seismic images. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 211–216Google Scholar
  114. Verdicchio G, Trincardi F (2006) Short-distance variability in slope bed-forms along the southwestern Adriatic margin (Central Mediterranean). Mar Geol 234:271–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Verdicchio G, Trincardi F (2008a) Shallow-water contourites. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 409–434Google Scholar
  116. Verdicchio G, Trincardi F (2008b) Mediterranean shelf-edge muddy contourites: example from Gela and south Adriatic basins. Geo-Mar Lett 28:137–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Verdicchio G, Trincardi F, Asioli A (2007) Mediterranean bottom-current deposits: an example from the southwestern Adriatic margin. In: Viana AR, Rebesco M (eds) Economic and palaeoceanographic significance of contourite deposits. Geological Society Memoir, vol 276. The Geological Society, London, pp 199–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vertino A, Savini A, Rosso A, et al (2010) Benthic habitat characterization and distribution from two representative sites of the deep-water SML Coral Province (Mediterranean). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:380–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vertino A, Stolarski J, Bosellini F, et al (2014) Mediterranean corals through time: from Miocene to present. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Viana AR, Rebesco M, (Eds) (2007) Economic and palaeoceanographic significance of contourite deposits. Geological Society Memoir, vol 276. The Geological Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  121. Wheeler AJ, Beyer A, Freiwald A, et al (2006) Morphology and environment of cold-water coral carbonate mounds on the NW European margin. Int J Earth Sci 96:37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wheeler AJ, Kozachenko M, Henry LA, et al (2011) The Moira mounds, small cold-water coral banks in the porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic: part A—an early stage growth phase for future coral carbonate mounds? Mar Geol 282:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. White M, Mohn C, de Stigter H, et al (2005) Deep water coral development as a function of hydrodynamics and surface productivity around the submarine banks of the Rockall trough, NE Atlantic. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wienberg C, Titschack J (2017) Framework-forming scleractinian cold-water corals through space and time: a late quaternary North Atlantic perspective. In: Rossi S, Bramanti L, Gori A, et al (eds) Marine animal forests: the ecology of benthic biodiversity hotspots. Springer, Cham, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  125. Wüst G (1961) On the vertical circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Geophys Res 66:3261–3271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wynn RB, Masson DG (2008) Sediment waves and bedforms. In: Rebesco M, Camerlenghi A (eds) Contourites, developments in sedimentology, vol 60. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 289–300Google Scholar

Cross References

  1. Altuna A, Poliseno A (this volume) Taxonomy, genetics and biodiversity of Mediterranean deep-sea corals and cold-water corals.Google Scholar
  2. Chimienti G, Bo M, Taviani M, et al (this volume) Occurrence and biogeography of Mediterranean cold-water corals.Google Scholar
  3. Freiwald A (this volume) Messinian salinity crisis: what happened to cold-water corals?Google Scholar
  4. Hayes R, Schroeder K, Poulain PM, et al (this volume) Review of the circulation and characteristics of intermediate water masses of the Mediterranean--implications for cold-water coral habitats.Google Scholar
  5. Montagna P, Taviani M (this volume) Mediterranean cold-water corals as paleoclimate archives.Google Scholar
  6. Skliris N (this volume) The Mediterranean is getting saltier: from the past to the future.Google Scholar
  7. Taviani M, Vertino A, Angeletti L, et al (this volume) Paleoecology of Mediterranean cold-water corals.Google Scholar
  8. Vertino A, Taviani M, Corselli C (this volume) Spatio-temporal distribution of Mediterranean cold water corals. Google Scholar
  9. Wienberg C (this volume) A deglacial cold-water coral boom in the Alborán Sea: from coral mounds and species dominance.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OGSTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR-CNR)BolognaItaly
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  4. 4.Stazione Zoologica Anton DohrnNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations