19 Occurrence and Biogeography of Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals

  • Giovanni ChimientiEmail author
  • Marzia Bo
  • Marco Taviani
  • Francesco Mastrototaro
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 9)


The term cold-water coral sensu lato groups taxa with a more or less pronounced frame-building ability (e.g. Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) with forest-forming organisms both on hard (e.g. Leiopathes glaberrima, Parantipathes larix, Callogorgia verticillata and Viminella flagellum) and soft bottoms (e.g. Isidella elongata, Funiculina quadrangularis and Kophobelemnon stelliferum). Cold-water coral species and their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea are here reviewed and discussed from a biogeographic point of view, considering geographical areas of occurrence and bathymetric distribution. The present-day occurrence of living cold-water corals is then compared to the main deep currents of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to the proper interaction between topography and a combination of cold, oxygenated and trophic-carrying water masses (i.e. Levantine Intermediate Water, deep waters and cascading effects), cold-water coral communities develop in a mosaic-like situation along the main paths that such water masses follow within the basin. Finally, knowledge gaps and future perspectives in the study of cold-water coral occurrence, distribution and biogeography are highlighted. The currently still scarce knowledge on the Mediterranean deep-sea and on the basin-scale distribution of the most important cold-water corals species represents crucial biogeographical information. This gives fundamental indications on the location of the Mediterranean vulnerable deep marine ecosystems for future management strategies.


Cold-water corals Hard bottoms Soft bottoms Biogeography Mediterranean Sea 



Part of the data reviewed here were sourced from various expeditions in the Central Mediterranean of R/Vs Urania and Minerva Uno within the EU-funded projects CoralFISH, HERMES, HERMIONE, ENPI-ECOSAFIMED and COCONET, as well as from research projects funded by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MIPAAF), Region Sardinia and Calabria. It is also part of the Flag Project RITMARE (Ricerca Italiana per il Mare), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, funded by the Ministry of University and Research, of EVER-EST (contract no. 674907) and DG Environment programme IDEM (grant agreement No 11.0661 /2017/750680/SUB/EN V.C2) projects. The authors wish to thank Lorenzo Angeletti, Giovanni Bortoluzzi, Angelo Cau, Simonepietro Canese, Guido Gay and Lidia Orsi-Relini for their personal communications and Patrick J. Schembri, Pilar Marín and Covadonga Orejas for their useful suggestions to improve this chapter. The authors are also grateful to L. Angeletti, A. Cau, Julian Evans, André Freiwald, Leyla Knittweis, ICM-CSIC/IFM-GEOMAR, Italian MIPAAF, Maltese Environment and Resource Authority and Oceana for photo courtesy. This is ISMAR-Bologna scientific contribution n. 1922.


  1. Abad E, Preciado I, Serrano A, et al (2007) Demersal and epibenthic assemblages of trawlable grounds in the northern Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean). Sci Mar 71:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta J, Canals M, Carbó A, et al (2004) Sea floor morphology and plio-quaternary sedimentary cover of the Mallorca channel, Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Mar Geol 206:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Addamo AM, Vertino A, Stolarski J, et al (2015) Merging scleractinian genera: the overwhelming genetic similarity between solitary Desmophyllum and colonial Lophelia. BMC Evol Biol 16:108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguilar R, Correa ML, Calcinai B, et al (2011) First records of Asbestopluma hypogea Vacelet and Boury-Esnault, 1996 (Porifera, Demospongiae Cladorhizidae) on seamounts and in bathyal settings of the Mediterranean Sea. Zootaxa 2925:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aguilar R, Pastor X, García S, et al (2013) Importance of seamount-like feature for conserving Mediterranean marine habitats and threatened species. OCEANA, MadridGoogle Scholar
  6. Aguilar R, Serrano A, García S, et al (2014) Vulnerable habitats and species in the deep-sea Emile Baudot Escarpment (South Balearic Islands) surveyed by ROV. In: Langar H, Bouafif C, Ouerghi A (eds) Proceedings of the 1st Mediterranean symposium on the conservation of dark habitats, Slovenia, 31 October 2014, pp 15–20Google Scholar
  7. Álvarez-Pérez G, Busquets P, De Mol B, et al (2005) Deep-water coral occurrences in the Strait of Gibraltar. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angeletti L, Taviani M, Canese S, et al (2014) New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea. Mediterr Mar Sci 15:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angeletti L, Mecho A, Doya C, et al (2015) First report of live deep-water cnidarian assemblages from the Malta Escarpment. Ital J Zool 82:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arena P, Li Greci F (1973) Indagine sulle condizioni faunistiche e sui rendimenti di pesca dei fondali batiali della Sicilia occidentale e della bordura settentrionale dei banchi della soglia Siculo-Tunisina. Quad Lab Tecnol Pesca 1:157–201Google Scholar
  11. Arnaud-Haond S, Van den Beld IMJ, Becheler R, et al (2015) Two “pillars” of cold-water coral reefs along Atlantic European margins: prevalent association of Madrepora oculata with Lophelia pertusa, from reef to colony scale. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:110–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Astraldi M, Gasparini GP, Vetrano A, et al (2002) Hydrographic characteristics and interannual variability of water masses in the central Mediterranean: a sensitivity test for longterm changes in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 49:661–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baillon S, Hamel JF, Wareham VE, et al (2012) Deep cold-water corals as nurseries for fish larvae. Front Ecol Environ 10:351–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bastari A, Micheli F, Ferretti F, et al (2016) Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) in the Mediterranean Sea: the opportunity of the Adriatic Sea. Mar Policy 68:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bastari A, Pica D, Ferretti F, et al (2018) Sea pens in the Mediterranean Sea: habitat suitability and opportunities for ecosystem recovery. ICES J Mar Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bavestrello G, Bo M, Canese S, et al (2014) The red coral populations of the gulfs of Naples and Salerno: human impact and deep mass mortalities. Ital J Zool 81:552–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bellan-Santini D (1985) The Mediterranean benthos: reflections and problems raised by a classification of the benthic assemblages. In: Moraitou-Apostolopoulou M, Kiortsis V (eds) Mediterranean marine ecosystems. Plenum Press, New York, pp 19–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bianchi CN, Morri C, Chiantore M, et al (2012) Mediterranean Sea biodiversity between the legacy from the past and a future of change. In: Stambler N (ed) Life in the Mediterranean Sea: a look at habitat changes. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  19. Bo M, Tazioli S, Spanò N, et al (2008) Antipathella subpinnata (Antipatharia, Myriopathidae) in Italian seas. Ital J Zool 75:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bo M, Bavestrello G, Canese S, et al (2009) Characteristics of a black coral meadow in the twilight zone of the central Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bo M, Bavestrello G, Canese S (2011) Coral assemblage off the Calabrian Coast (South Italy) with new observations on living colonies of Antipathes dichotoma. Ital J Zool 78:231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bo M, Canese S, Spaggiari C, et al (2012) Deep coral oases in the South Tyrrhenian Sea. PLoS One 7:e49870. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Bo M, Bava S, Canese S, et al (2014a) Fishing impact on deep Mediterranean rocky habitats as revealed by ROV investigation. Biol Conserv 171:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bo M, Canese S, Bavestrello G (2014b) Discovering Mediterranean black coral forests: Parantipathes larix (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Tuscan Archipelago, Italy. Ital J Zool 81:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bo M, Cerrano C, Canese S, et al (2014c) The coral assemblages of an off-shore deep Mediterranean rocky bank (NW Sicily, Italy). Mar Ecol 35:332–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bo M, Bavestrello G, Angiolillo M, et al (2015) Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia). PLoS One 10:e0119393. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Bouchet P, Taviani M (1992a) La colonizzazione dei bacini a soglia. Il caso del Mar Mediterraneo. Lavori della Società Italiana di. Malacologia 24:120–130Google Scholar
  28. Bouchet P, Taviani M (1992b) The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: pseudopopulations of Atlantic species? Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 39:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bourcier M, Zibrowius H (1973) Les “boues rouges” déversées dans le canyon de la Cassidaigne (region de Marseille). Observations en soucoupe plongeante SP350 (juin 1971) et résultats de dragages. Téthys 4:811–841Google Scholar
  30. Braga-Henriques A, Porteiro FM, Ribeiro PA, et al (2013) Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic). Biogeosciences 10:4009–4036. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Budillon G, Lo Bue N, Siena G, et al (2010) Hydrographic characteristics of water masses and circulation in the northern Ionian Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:441–457. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buhl-Mortensen L, Vanreusel A, Gooday A, et al (2010) Biological structures as a source of habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity on the deep ocean margins. Mar Ecol Evol Perspect 31:21–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bullimore R, Foster N, Howell K (2013) Coral-characterized benthic assemblages of the deep northeast Atlantic: defining “Coral Gardens” to support future habitat mapping efforts. ICES J Mar Sci 70:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cairns SD (1983) A generic revision of the Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part I. Description of the genera. Bull Mar Sci 33:427–508Google Scholar
  35. Canals M, Puig P, Durrieu de Madron X, et al (2006) Flushing submarine canyons. Nature 444:354–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carlier A, Le Guilloux E, Olu K, et al (2009) Trophic relationships in a deep Mediterranean cold-water coral bank (Santa Maria di Leuca, Ionian Sea). Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carpine C (1970) Ecologie de l’étage bathyal dans la Méditerranée occidentale. Mém Inst Océanogr Monaco 2:1–146Google Scholar
  38. Carpine C, Grasshoff M (1975) Les gorgonaires de la Méditerranée. Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 71:1–140Google Scholar
  39. Carreiro-Silva M, Andrews AH, Braga-Henriques A, et al (2013) Variability in growth rates of long-lived black coral Leiopathes sp. from the Azores. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 473:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cartes JE, Lo Iacono C, Mamouridis V, et al (2013) Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: to what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates? Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 76:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cau A, Follesa MC, Moccia D, et al (2015) Deepwater corals biodiversity along roche du large ecosystems with different habitat complexity along the south Sardinia continental margin (CW Mediterranean Sea). Mar Biol 162:1865–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cau A, Moccia D, Follesa MC, et al (2017) Coral forests diversity in the outer shelf of the South Sardinian continental margin. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chimienti G, Maiorano P, Mastrototaro F (2015) Pennatula rubra facies in the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean). Biol Mar Mediterr 22:76–80Google Scholar
  44. Chimienti G, Angeletti L, Mastrototaro F (2018a) Withdrawal behaviour of the red sea pen Pennatula rubra (Cnidaria: Pennatulacea). Eur Zool J 85:64–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chimienti G, Bo M, Mastrototaro F (2018b) Know the distribution to assess the changes: Mediterranean cold-water coral bioconstructions. Rend Lincei Sci Fis Nat. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Colloca F, Cardinale M, Belluscio A, et al (2003) Structure and diversity of demersal assemblages in the central Mediterranean Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:469–480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Costantini F, Taviani M, Remia A, et al (2010) Deep-water Corallium rubrum (L., 1758) from the Mediterranean Sea preliminary genetic characterisation. Mar Ecol Evol Perspect 31:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cushman-Roisin B, Gacic M, Poulain PM, et al (2001) Physical oceanography of the Adriatic Sea: past, present and future. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. D’Onghia G, Mastrototaro F, Matarrese A, et al (2003) Biodiversity of the upper slope demersal community in the eastern Mediterranean: preliminary comparison between two areas with and without trawl fishing. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 31:263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. D’Onghia G, Mastrototaro F, Maiorano P, et al (2008) Cold water corals: a biodiversity “hot-spot” in the Mediterranean Sea. JMBA Global Marine Environment (published on line), pp 32–33Google Scholar
  51. D’Onghia G, Maiorano P, Carlucci, et al (2012) Comparing deep-sea fish fauna between coral and non-coral “megahabitats” in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral Province (Mediterranean Sea). PLoS One 7:e44509. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. D’Onghia G, Capezzuto F, Cardone F, et al (2015) Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea) using different tools. Mediterr Mar Sci 16:180–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. D’Onghia G, Calculli C, Capezzuto F, et al (2016) New records of cold-water coral sites and fish fauna characterization of a potential network existing in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol 1–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davies AJ, Wisshak M, Orr JC, et al (2008) Predicting suitable habitat for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 55:1048–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. De Lazzari A, Boldrin A, Rabitti S, et al (1999) Variability and downward fluxes of particulate matter in the Otranto Strait area. J Mar Syst 20:399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. De Mol B, Henriet JP, Canals M (2005) Development of coral banks in Porcupine Seabight: do they have Mediterranean ancestors? In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 515–533Google Scholar
  57. Deidun A, Tsounis G, Balzan F, et al (2010) Records of black coral (Antipatharia) and red coral (Corallium rubrum) fishing activities in the Maltese Islands. Mar Biodivers Rec 3:e90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Deidun A, Andaloro F, Bavestrello G, et al (2015) First characterisation of a Leiopathes glaberrima (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia) forest in Maltese exploited fishing grounds. Ital J Zool 82:271–280Google Scholar
  59. Delibrias G, Taviani M (1985) Dating the death of Mediterranean deep-sea scleractinian corals. Mar Geol 62:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dorschel B, Hebbeln D, Foubert A (2007) Hydrodynamics and cold-water coral facies distribution related to recent sedimentary processes at Galway Mound west of Ireland. Mar Geol 244:184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dubois-Dauphin Q, Montagna P, Sian G, et al (2017) Hydrological variations of the intermediate water masses of the western Mediterranean Sea during the past 20 ka inferred from neodymium isotopic composition in foraminifera and cold-water corals. Clim Past 13:1737. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dullo WC, Flögel S, Rüggeberg A (2008) Cold-water coral growth in relation to the hydrography of the Celtic and Nordic European continental margin. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 371:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Durrieu de Madron X, Zervakis V, Theocharis A, et al (2005) Comments on “Cascades of dense water around the world ocean”. Progr Oceanogr 64:83–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Etnoyer P, Morgan LE (2005) Habitat-forming deep-sea corals in the northeast Pacific Ocean. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 331–343Google Scholar
  65. Evans J, Aguilar R, Alvarez H, et al (2016) Recent evidence that the deep sea around Malta is a biodiversity hotspot. In: Rapport du Congrès de la Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée, vol 41, p 463Google Scholar
  66. Fabri MC, Pedel L, Beuck L, et al (2014) Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French Mediterranean submarine canyons: spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 104:184–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fanelli E, Delbono I, Ivaldi R, et al (2017) Cold-water coral Madrepora oculata in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean): historical and recent findings. Aquat Conserv 27:965–975. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fourt M, Goujard A (2012) Rapport final de la campagne MEDSEACAN (Têtes des canyons méditerranéens continentaux) novembre 2008–avril 2010. Partenariat Agence des aires marines protégées–GIS Posidonie, GIS Posidonie Publ, p 218Google Scholar
  69. Fourt M, Michez N, Chevaldonné, et al (2014) Exploration visuelle des canyons et bancs rocheux profonds en Méditerranée française: apports à la typologie nationale des habitats profonds. In: Langar H, Bouafif C, Ouerghi A (eds) Proceedings of the 1st Mediterranean symposium on the conservation of dark habitats, Portoroz, Slovenia, 31 October 2014. RAC/SPA Publications, Tunis, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  70. Fourt M, Goujard A, Canese S, et al (2015) Rapport de la campagne océanographique “Ramoge Exploration canyon et roches profondes 2015”. Accord Ramoge-Agence des aires marines protégées, p 81Google Scholar
  71. Frederiksen R, Jensen A, Westerberg H (1992) The distribution of the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa around the Faroe Islands and the relation to internal tidal mixing. Sarsia 77:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fredj G, Laubier L (1985) The deep Mediterranean benthos. In: Moraitou-Apostopoulou M, Kiortsis V (eds) Mediterranean marine ecosystems (NATO conference series). Plenum Press, New York, pp 169–188Google Scholar
  73. Freiwald A (2002) Reef-forming cold-water corals. In: Ocean margin systems. Springer, New York, pp 365–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Freiwald A, Wilson JB (1998) Taphonomy of modern deep, cold-temperate water coral reefs. Hist Biol 13:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, et al (2004) Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, p 84Google Scholar
  76. Freiwald A, Beuck L, Rüggeberg A, et al (2009) The white coral community in the central Mediterranean Sea revealed by ROV surveys. Oceanography 22:58–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Freiwald A, Boetius A, Bohrmann G (2011) Deep water ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean, Cruise No. 70, Leg 1–3. METEOR-Berichte, p 312Google Scholar
  78. Gage JS, Tyler PA (1991) Deep-sea biology – a natural history of organisms at the deep-sea floor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gana S, Iudicone D, Ghenim L, et al (2015) Monitoring water masses properties by Glider in Sardinia Channel during summer 2014. In: Geophys Res Abstr 17, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienne, April 2016, p 14252Google Scholar
  80. Genin A, Dayton PK, Lonsdale PF, et al (1986) Corals on seamount peaks provide evidence of current acceleration over deep-sea topography. Nature 322:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. GFCM (General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean) (2009) Criteria for the identification of sensitive habitats of relevance for the management of priority species. In: Meeting of the Sub-Committee on Marine Environment and Ecosystems (SCMEE), Malaga, SpainGoogle Scholar
  82. Giacobbe S (2001) Distribuzione areale e batimetrica della facies a Errina aspera L. (Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae) nello Stretto di Messina. Biol Mar Mediterr 8:246–251Google Scholar
  83. Giacobbe S, Laria G, Spanò N (2007) Hard bottom assemblages in the Strait of Messina: distribution of Errina aspera L. (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae). In: Rapport du Congrès de la Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée, vol 38, p 485Google Scholar
  84. Gili JM, Pagès F (1987) Pennatuláceos (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) recolectados en la plataforma continental catalana (Mediterráneo occidental). Miscellania Zoológica 11:25–39Google Scholar
  85. Giusti M, Bo M, Bavestrello G, et al (2012) Record of Viminella flagellum (Alcyonacea: Ellisellidae) in Italian waters (Mediterranean Sea). Mar Biodivers Rec 5:e34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gori A, Orejas C, Madurell T, et al (2013) Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean). Biogeosciences 10:2049–2060. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gori A, Grover R, Orejas C, et al (2014a) Uptake of dissolved free aminoacids by four cold-water coral species from the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gori A, Reynaud S, Orejas C, et al (2014b) Physiological performance of the cold-water coral Dendrophyllia cornigera reveals its preference for temperate environments. Coral Reefs. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gori A, Bavestrello G, Grinyó J, et al (2017) Animal forests in deep coastal bottoms and continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. In: Rossi S (ed) Marine animal forests: the ecology of benthic biodiversity hotspots. Springer, Cham, pp 1–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Grinyó J, Gori A, Ambroso S, et al (2016) Diversity, distribution and population size structure of deep Mediterranean gorgonian assemblages (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea). Progr Oceanogr 145:42–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hebbeln D, Wienberg C, Beuck L, et al (2009) Report and preliminary results of RV POSEIDON Cruise POS 385 “Cold-Water Corals of the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea)”, vol 273. Universität Bremen, Berichte, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, p 79Google Scholar
  92. Heifetz J (2002) Coral in Alaska: distribution, abundance, and species associations. Hydrobiologia 471:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Henriet JP, Hamoumi N, Da Silva AC, et al (2014) Carbonate mounds: from paradox to World Heritage. Mar Geol 352:89–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Henry LA, Frank N, Hebbeln D, et al (2014) Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 88:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Huvenne VAI, Beyer A, de Haas H, et al (2005) The seabed appearance of different coral bank provinces in the Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic: results from sidescan sonar and ROV seabed mapping. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 535–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ingrassia M, Macelloni L, Bosman A, et al (2016) Black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) forest near the western Pontine Islands (Tyrrhenian Sea). Mar Biodivers 46:285–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. López-González PJ, Grinyó J, Gili JM (2015) Chironephthya mediterranea n. sp. (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae), the first species of the genus discovered in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodivers 45:667–688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kiriakoulakis K, Freiwald A, Fisher E, et al (2007) Organic matter quality and supply to deep-water coral/mound systems of the NW European Continental Margin. Int J Earth Sci 96:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Knittweis L, Aguilar R, Alvarez H, et al (2016) New depth record of the precious red coral Corallium rubrum for the Mediterranean. In: Rapport du Congrès de la Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 41, p 467Google Scholar
  100. Kozachenko M, Wheeler A, Beyer A, et al (2002) A four dimensional prospective of the sedimentary processes and their interactions with Irelandʼs deep-water coral carbonate mound ecosystems: Belgica carbonate mound province, Eastern Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic. Geophysical Research Abstracts 4, Abstr EGS02- A-02529, 27th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Nice, 21–26 April 2002Google Scholar
  101. de la Torriente A, Aguilar R, Serrano A, et al (2014) Sur de Almería – Seco de los Olivos. Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (ed) Proyecto LIFE+ INDEMARES, p 102Google Scholar
  102. Lastras G, Canals M, Ballesteros E, et al (2016) Cold-water corals and anthropogenic impacts in La Fonera submarine canyon head, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. PLoS One 11:e0155729. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Laubier L, Emig CC (1993) La faune benthique profonde de Méditerranée. In: Della Croce FR (ed) Symposium Mediterranen Seas 2000. Istituto di Scienze Ambientali Marine, S. Margherita Ligure, pp 397–428Google Scholar
  104. Lincoln RJB, Clark GA (1998) A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 361Google Scholar
  105. Lo Iacono C, Gràcia E, Bartolomé R, et al (2012) Habitats of the Chella Bank. Eastern Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean). In: Harris P, Baker E (eds) Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, pp 681–687Google Scholar
  106. Lo Iacono C, Gràcia E, Ranero CR, et al (2014) The West Melilla cold-water coral mounds, eastern Alboran Sea: morphological characterization and environmental context. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:316–326. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Locke JM, Bilewitch JP, Coates KA (2013) Scleractinia, Octocorallia and Antipatharia of Bermuda’s reefs and deep-water coral communities: a taxonomic perspective including new records. In: Sheppard C (ed) Coral reefs of the world, vol 4. Coral reefs of the UK Overseas territories. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Maldonado M, López-Acosta M, Sánchez-Tocino L, et al (2013) The rare, giant gorgonian Ellisella paraplexauroides: demographics and conservation concerns. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 479:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Manca B, Burca M, Giorgetti A, et al (2004) Physical and biochemical averaged vertical profiles in the Mediterranean regions: an important tool to trace the climatology of water masses and to validate incoming data from operational oceanography. J Mar Syst 48:83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Manzi V, Gennari R, Hilgen F, et al (2013) Age refinement of the Messinian salinity crisis onset in the Mediterranean. Terra Nova 25:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. von Marenzeller E (1893) Zoologische Ergebnisse. II. Polych ten des Grundes, gesammelt 1890, 1891 und 1892. Sitzungb Kaiserl Ak Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 60:25–48Google Scholar
  112. Martinelli M, Morello EB, Isajlović I, et al (2013) Towed underwater television towards the quantification of Norway lobster, squat lobsters and sea pens in the Adriatic Sea. Acta Adriat 54:3–12Google Scholar
  113. Massutí E, Reñones O (2005) Demersal resources assemblages in the trawl fishing grounds off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Sci Mar 69:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mastrototaro F, Matarrese A, Tursi A (2002) Un mare di coralli nel Mar Ionio. Biol Mar Mediterr 9:616–619Google Scholar
  115. Mastrototaro F, D’Onghia G, Corriero G, et al (2010) Biodiversity of the white coral ecosystem off cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): an update. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:412–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mastrototaro F, Maiorano P, Vertino A, et al (2013) A facies of Kophobelemnon (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). Mar Ecol 34:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mastrototaro F, Chimienti G, Capezzuto F, et al (2015) First record of Protoptilum carpenteri (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) in the Mediterranean Sea. Ital J Zool 82:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mastrototaro F, Chimienti G, Acosta J, et al (2017) Isidella elongata (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) facies in the western Mediterranean Sea: visual surveys and descriptions of its ecological role. Eur Zool J 84:209–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Maurin C (1962) Etude des fonds chalutables de la Méditerranée occidentale (écologie et pêche) «Président-Théodore-Tissier» 1957 à 1960 et «Thalassa» 1960 et 1961. Rev Trav Inst Pêches Maritimes 26:163–218Google Scholar
  120. Maynou F, Cartes JE (2012) Effects of trawling on fish and invertebrates from deep-sea coral facies of Isidella elongata in the western Mediterranean. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 92:1501–1507. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mienis F, de Stigter HC, White M, et al (2007) Hydrodynamic controls on coldwater coral growth and carbonate mound development at the SW and SE Rockall Trough Margin, NE Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 54:1655–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Miller KJ (1998) Short-distance dispersal of black coral larvae: inference from spatial analysis of colony genotypes. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 163:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Millot C, Taupier-Letage I (2005) Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In: The handbook of environmental chemistry 5K. Springer, Berlin, pp 29–66Google Scholar
  124. Montagna P, McCulloch M, Taviani M, et al (2006) Phosphorus in cold-water corals as a proxy for seawater nutrient chemistry. Science 312:1788–1791. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Morri C, Bavestrello G, Nike Bianchi C (1991) Faunal and ecological notes on some benthic cnidarian species from the Tuscan Archipelago and eastern Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean). Boll Mus Ist Biol Univ Genova 54–55:27–47Google Scholar
  126. Movilla J, Gori A, Calvo E, et al (2014) Resistance of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species to low-pH conditions. Water 6:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mytilineou C, Smith CJ, Anastasopoulou A, et al (2014) New cold-water coral occurrences in the eastern Ionian Sea: results from experimental long line fishing. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Naumann MS, Orejas C, Ferrier-Pages C (2014) Species-specific physiological response by the cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata to variations within their natural temperature range. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ocaña A, Sánchez Tocino L, López-González PJ (2000) Consideraciones faunísticas y biogeográficas de los antozoos (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) de la costa de Granada (Mar de Alborán). Zool Baetica 11:51–65Google Scholar
  130. Opresko DM (2009) A new name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian coral formerly known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia). Pac Sci 63:277–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Orejas C, Gori A, Lo Iacono C, et al (2009) Cold-water corals in the Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean: spatial distribution, density and anthropogenic impact. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Orejas C, Ferrier-Pages C, Reynaud S, et al (2011) Long-term growth rates of four Mediterranean cold-water coral species maintained in aquaria. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 429:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Orejas C, Gori A, Jiménez C, et al (2017) First in situ documentation of a population of the coral Dendrophyllia ramea off Cyprus (Levantine Sea) and evidence of human impacts. Galaxea J Coral Reef Stud 19:15–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Otero MM, Numa C, Bo M, et al (2017) Overview of the conservation status of Mediterranean anthozoans. IUCN, Málaga, p 73Google Scholar
  135. Palanques A, Durrieu de Madron X, Puig P, et al (2006) Suspended sediment fluxes and transport processes in the Gulf of Lions submarine canyons. The role of storms and dense water cascading. Mar Geol 234:43–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pardo E, Aguilar R, García S, et al (2011) Documentación de arrecifes de corales de agua fría en el Mediterráneo occidental (Mar de Alborán). Chronica Naturae 1:20–34Google Scholar
  137. Pérès JM, Picard J (1964) Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la Mer Méditerranée. Recueil Trav Station Mar Endoume 31:1–137Google Scholar
  138. Petović S, Marković O, Ikica Z, et al (2016) Effects of bottom trawling on the benthic assemblages in the south Adriatic Sea (Montenegro). Acta Adriat 57:81–91Google Scholar
  139. Pierdomenico M, Martorelli E, Dominguez-Carrió C, et al (2016) Seafloor characterization and benthic megafaunal distribution of an active submarine canyon and surrounding sectors: the case of Gioia Canyon (southern Tyrrhenian Sea). J Mar Syst 157:101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Por FD, Dimentman C (1985) Continuity of Messinian biota in the Mediterranean basin. In: Stanley DJ, Wezel FC (eds) Geologic evolution of the Mediterranean Basin. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 545–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Porporato E, De Domenico F, Mangano MC, et al (2009) The pennatulacean fauna from southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Biol Mar Mediterr 16:292–293Google Scholar
  142. Puig P, Palanques A, Orange DL, et al (2008) Dense shelf water cascades and sedimentary furrow formation in the Cap de Creus Canyon, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Cont Shelf Res 28:2017–2030. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Raffi S, Taviani M (1984) An outline of the late Tertiary to Recent History of the Mediterranean deep-sea mollusks faunas. Int Coll on Mediterranean Neogene Marine Megafaunal Palaeoenvironments and Biogeography. Ann Géol Pays Héllén 32:257–261Google Scholar
  144. Relini G, Peirano A, Tunesi L, et al (1986) Osservazioni sulle comunità dei fondi strascicatoli del Mar Ligure Centro-Orientale. Boll Mus Ist Biol Univ Genova 52:139–161Google Scholar
  145. Reyss D (1964) Contribution à l’étude du rech Lacaze-Duthiers, vallée sous-marine des coôtes du Roussillon. Vie Milieu 15:1–146Google Scholar
  146. Roark E, Guilderson TP, Dunbar RB, et al (2006) Radiocarbon-based ages and growth rates of Hawaiian deep-sea corals. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 327:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Roberts JM, Wheeler AJ, Freiwald A (2006) Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 312:543–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Roberts JM, Davies AJ, Henry LA (2009a) Mingulay reef complex: an interdisciplinary study of cold-water coral habitat, hydrography and biodiversity. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Roberts JM, Wheeler A, Freiwald A, et al (2009b) Cold-water corals: the biology and geology of deep-sea coral habitats. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 334.
  150. Robinson AR, Leslie W, Theocharis A, et al (2001) Mediterranean sea circulation. Encyclopedia of ocean science 3. Academic, San Diego, pp 1689–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rossi L (1958) Contributo allo studio della fauna di profondità vivente presso la Riviera ligure di levante. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria”. Genova 2:1–13Google Scholar
  152. Rossi S, Bramanti L, Gori A, et al (2017) An overview of the animal forests of the world. In: Rossi S, Bramanti L, Gori A, et al (eds) Marine animal forests: the ecology of benthic biodiversity hotspots. Springer, Cham, pp 1–26. Google Scholar
  153. Sabelli B, Taviani M (2014) The making of the Mediterranean molluscan biodiversity. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 285–306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Salomidi M, Zibrowius H, Issaris Y, et al (2010) Dendrophyllia in Greek waters, Mediterranean Sea, with first record of D. ramea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from the area. Mediterr Mar Sci 11:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Salvati E, Angiolillo M, Bo M, et al (2010) The population of Errina aspera (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) of the Messina Strait (Mediterranean Sea). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 90:1331–1336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sardà F, Calafat A, Flexas MM, et al (2004) An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology. Sci Mar 68:7–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Savini A, Vertino A, Marchese F, et al (2014) Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability. PLoS One 9:e87108. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Schembri PJ, Dimech M, Camilleri M, et al (2007) Living deep water Lophelia and Madrepora corals in Maltese waters (Strait of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea). Cah Biol Mar 48:77–84Google Scholar
  159. Schuchert P (2008) The European athecate hydroids and their medusa (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 3. Rev Suisse Zool 115:221–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith C, Sakellariou D, Mccoy F, et al (2009) Deep coral environments south of Crete. In: Proceedings of the 9th symposium on oceanography & fisheries, Patra, 1, pp 665–668Google Scholar
  161. Steindachner F (1891) Veröffentlichungen der Commission für Erforschung des östlichen Mittelmeeres. Vorläufiger Bericht über die zoologischen Arbeiten im Sommer 1891. Sitzungb Kaiserl Ak Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 1:435–447Google Scholar
  162. Taviani M (2002) The Mediterranean benthos from Late Miocene up to Present: ten million years of dramatic climatic and geological vicissitudes. Biol Mar Mediterr 9:445–463Google Scholar
  163. Taviani M (2003) Shaping the biogeography of the Mediterranean basin: one geologist’s perspective. In: Marine biogeography of the Mediterranean Sea: patterns and dynamics of biodiversity. Biogeographia 24:15–22Google Scholar
  164. Taviani M, Freiwald A, Zibrowius H (2005a) Deep coral growth in the Mediterranean Sea: an overview. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  165. Taviani M, Remia A, Corselli C, et al (2005b) First geo-marine survey of living cold-water Lophelia reefs in the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean basin). Facies 50:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Taviani M, Freiwald A, Beuck L (2010) The deepest known occurrence of the precious red coral Corallium rubrum (L. 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Bussoletti E, Cottingham D, Bruckner A, et al (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on red coral science, management, trade: lessons from the Mediterranean. NOOA Technical Memorandum CRCP-13. NOOA, Silver Spring, pp 87–93Google Scholar
  167. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Antolini B, et al (2011a) Geo-biology of Mediterranean deep-water coral ecosystems. In: Brugnoli E, Cavaretta G, et al (eds) Marine research at CNR. Dipartamento Terra e Ambiente, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma, pp 705–720Google Scholar
  168. Taviani M, Vertino A, López Correa M, et al (2011b) Pleistocene to recent scleractinian deep-water corals and coral facies in the Eastern Mediterranean. Facies 57:579–603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Beuck L, et al (2015) Reprint of ‘On and off the beaten track: Megafaunal sessile life and Adriatic cascading processes’. Mar Geol 375:146–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Canese S, et al (2017) The “Sardinian cold-water coral province” in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:61–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Terribile K, Evans J, Knittweis L, Schembri PJ (2015) Maximising MEDITS: using data collected from trawl surveys to characterise the benthic and demersal assemblages of the circalittoral and deeper waters around the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). Reg Stud Mar Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Thiem Ø, Ravagnan E, Fosså JH, et al (2006) Food supply mechanisms for cold-water corals along a continental shelf edge. J Mar Syst 60:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Trincardi F, Foglini F, Verdicchio G, et al (2007) The impact of cascading currents on the Bari Canyon System, SW-Adriatic Margin (Central Mediterranean). Mar Geol 246:208–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Tudela S, Simard F, Skinner J, et al (2004) The Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems: a proposal for their conservation. In: The Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems: an overview of their diversity, structure, functioning and anthropogenic impacts, with a proposal for conservation. IUCN, Málaga and WWF, Rome, pp 39–47Google Scholar
  175. Tunesi L, Diviacco G (1997) Observation by submersible on the bottoms off shore Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea). In: Atti del 12°Congresso dell’Associazione Italiana di Oceanologia e Limnologia, pp 61–74Google Scholar
  176. Tunesi L, Diviacco G, Mo G (2001) Observation by submersible on the biocoenosis of the deep-sea corals off Portofino Promontory (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). In: Martin Willison JH, et al (eds) Proceedings of the first international symposium on deep-sea corals, Ecology Action Centre and Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, pp 76–87Google Scholar
  177. Tursi A, Mastrototaro F, Matarrese A, et al (2004) Biodiversity of the white coral reefs in the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean). Chem Ecol 20:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Vafidis D, Koukouras A, Voultsiadou-Koukoura E (1994) Octocoral fauna of the Aegean Sea with a check list of the Mediterranean species: new information, faunal comparisons. Ann Inst Océanogr (Monaco) 70:217–230Google Scholar
  179. Vafidis D, Koukouras A, Voultsiadou-Koukoura E (1997) Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia and Scleractinia (Hexacorallia, Anthozoa) of the Aegean Sea, with a checklist of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea species. Isr J Zool 43:55–70Google Scholar
  180. Vertino A, Savini A, Rosso AI, et al (2010) Benthic habitat characterization and distribution from two representative sites of the deep-water SML coral province (Mediterranean). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:380–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Vertino A, Stolarski J, Bosellini FR, et al (2014) Mediterranean corals through time: from Miocene to present. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 257–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Vilibic I, Orlic M (2002) Adriatic water masses, their rates of formation and transport through the Otranto Strait. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 49:1321–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Voultsiadou E, Fryganiotis C, Porra M, et al (2011) Diversity of invertebrate discards in small and medium scale Aegean Sea fisheries. Open Mar Biol J 5:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wagner D, Opresko DM (2015) Description of a new species of Leiopathes (Antipatharia: Leiopathidae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 3974:277–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Watremez P (2012) Canyon heads in the French Mediterranean. Overview of results from the MEDSEACAN and CORSEACAN campaigns (2008–2010). In: Würtz M (ed) Mediterranean submarine canyons: ecology and governance. IUCN, Gland/Málaga, pp 105–112Google Scholar
  186. Wheeler AJ, Beck T, Thiede J, et al (2005) Deep-water cold-water coral carbonate mounds on the Porcupine Bank, Irish margin: preliminary results from Polarstern ARK-XIX/3a ROV cruise. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 323–333Google Scholar
  187. Wheeler AJ, Beyer A, Freiwald A, et al (2007) Morphology and environment of cold-water coral carbonate mounds on the NW European margin. Int J Earth Sci 96:37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. White M, Mohn C, de Stigter H, et al (2005) Deepwater coral development as a function of hydrodynamics and surface productivity around the submarine banks of the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. White M, Roberts JM, van Weering T (2007) Do bottom intensified diurnal tidal currents shape the alignment of carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic? Geo-Mar Lett 27:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Williams GC (2011) The global diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). PLoS One 6:e22747. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Würtz M (ed) (2012) Mediterranean submarine canyons: ecology and governance. IUCN, Gland/Málaga, p 216Google Scholar
  192. Würtz M, Rovere M (eds) (2015) Atlas of the Mediterranean seamounts and seamount-like structures. IUCN, Gland, p 276Google Scholar
  193. Zibrowius H (1980) Les scléractiniaires de la Méditerranée et de l’Atlantique nord-oriental. Mém Inst Océanogr Monaco 11:1–284Google Scholar
  194. Zibrowius H (2003) The “white coral community”, canyon and seamount faunas of the deep Mediterranean Sea. RAC/SPA – Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, TunisGoogle Scholar
  195. Zibrowius H, Cairns SD (1992) Revision of the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Stylasteridæ (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Mém Mus Hist Nat Westerberg 153:1–136Google Scholar

Cross References

  1. Addamo A (this volume) Desmophyllum dianthus genetics and moreGoogle Scholar
  2. Altuna A, Poliseno A (this volume) Taxonomy, genetics and biodiversity of Mediterranean deep-sea corals and cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  3. Aymà A, Aguzzi J, Canals M, et al (this volume) Occurrence of living cold-water corals at large depths within submarine canyons of the northwestern Mediterranean SeaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bo M, Bavestrello G (this volume) Mediterranean black coral communitiesGoogle Scholar
  5. Boavida J, Becheler R, Addamo A, et al (this volume) Past, present and future connectivity of Mediterranean cold-water corals: patterns, drivers and fate in a technically and environmentally changing worldGoogle Scholar
  6. Fourt M, Goujard A, Chevaldonné P (this volume) Working with visual methods, comparison among the French deep-sea canyonsGoogle Scholar
  7. Freiwald A (this volume) Messinian salinity crisis: what happened to cold-water corals?Google Scholar
  8. Hayes D, Schroeder K, Poulain, PM, et al (this volume) Review of the circulation and characteristics of intermediate water masses of the Mediterranean – implications for cold-water coral habitatsGoogle Scholar
  9. Knittweis L, Evans J, Aguilar R, et al (this volume) Recent discoveries of extensive cold-water coral assemblages in Maltese watersGoogle Scholar
  10. Orejas C, Jiménez C, Gori A, et al (this volume) Corals of Aphrodite: Dendrophyllia ramea communities of CyprusGoogle Scholar
  11. Otero M, Marin P (this volume) Conservation of cold-water corals in the Mediterranean: current status and future prospects for improvementGoogle Scholar
  12. Puig P, Gili JM (this volume) Submarine canyons in the Mediterranean: a shelter for cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  13. Reynaud S, Ferrier-Pagès C (this volume) Biology and ecophysiology of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  14. Rueda JL, Urra J, Aguilar R, et al (this volume) Cold-water coral associated fauna in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent areasGoogle Scholar
  15. Taviani M (this volume) Changing views about Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  16. Taviani M, Vertino A, Angeletti L, et al (this volume) Paleoecology of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  17. Vertino A, Taviani M, Corselli C (this volume) Spatio-temporal distribution of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Chimienti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marzia Bo
    • 2
  • Marco Taviani
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Francesco Mastrototaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia and CoNISMa LRUUniversità degli Studi di Bari Aldo MoroBariItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della VitaUniversità degli Studi di GenovaGenovaItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR-CNR)BolognaItaly
  4. 4.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  5. 5.Stazione Zoologica Anton DohrnNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations