Advertisement

15 Habitat Mapping of Cold-Water Corals in the Mediterranean Sea

  • Claudio Lo IaconoEmail author
  • Alessandra Savini
  • Veerle A. I. Huvenne
  • Eulàlia Gràcia
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 9)

Abstract

Habitat mapping is increasingly considered as a reliable and efficient methodology to explore and represent the complexity and extent of benthic communities. Providing a full-coverage spatial perspective of habitat heterogeneity is becoming an essential tool in science-based management of natural resources, specifically regarding vulnerable marine ecosystems such as cold-water corals. Here we present two case studies, where we revisit known cold-water coral areas of the Mediterranean Sea and where we apply original habitat mapping techniques. The areas correspond to the Chella Bank, in the Alborán Sea, and the Santa Maria de Leuca cold-water coral province, in the Ionian Sea. The Chella Bank is one of a series of volcanic banks and knolls located in the western Mediterranean that have been described as geologic features hosting vulnerable marine ecosystems. The cold-water coral province off Santa Maria de Leuca represents one of the largest known occurrences of living reef-forming cold-water coral species (i.e. Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) in the Mediterranean Sea, where corals grow on the exposed summits and flanks of mound-like structures (up to 300 m wide and 25 m high) associated with mass wasting events. Both cases adopt a holistic and integrated study of the environmental characteristics (geology and oceanography) of the observed benthic habitats and aim to map their extent using supervised automated classifications. Multibeam swath bathymetry, the derived acoustic backscatter, sidescan sonar, video footage gathered with a remotely operated vehicle, photo stills from underwater drop camera, and CTD casts where available, have been used together to identify the geological and oceanographic processes that most likely are responsible for the distribution of the observed cold-water corals and associated benthic communities.

Keywords

Habitat mapping Cold-water corals Geomorphology Benthic habitats Mediterranean Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research on the Chella Bank benefited from the Project EVENT (Integration of new technologies in paleoseismology: Characterisation of faults capable to produce earthquakes and tsunamis in south Iberia – CGl200612861-C02-02, CTM2003.QJJ46-ElMAR). We acknowledge the helpful contribution of Jordi Grinyó (ICM-CSIC), which supported the species recognition on the Chella Bank. We deeply thank the EVENT-Shelf and EVENT-DEEP Cruise parties, specifically Rafael Bartolomé (ICM-CSIC) for contributing in the acquisition of some of the video data. We are extremely grateful to Jose Ignacio Diaz and José Luis Sanz from the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) for having provided the multi beam and relative backscatter dataset of the Chella Bank. We finally thank Montse Demestre (ICM-CSIC) and Xavier Monteys (GSI-Ireland) for providing the ROV and the digital still camera used on the Chella Bank. Data for the study on the SML CWC province were collected and analysed within the framework of the EU FP7 project CoralFish (Ecosystem-based management of corals, fish and fisheries in the deep waters of Europe and beyond, Grant agreement number: 213144 – www.eu-fp7-coralfish.net), the Italian project MAGIC (Mapping Geohazard along the Italian Coasts – www.magicproject.it) and the FIRB program 2004/2006 RBAU 01RKC7_004 APLABES. The research on the SML area also benefited from the EU FP6 project HERMES (Hotspot Ecosystem Research on the Margins of European Seas, Contract number GOCE-CT-2005- 511234), the RITMARE project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and the ESF COCARDE Network. We are finally indebted to the two reviewers who have deeply improved the quality of this chapter with their constructive observations.

References

  1. Argnani A, Frugoni F, Cosi R, et al (2001) Tectonics and seismicity of the Apulian Ridge south of Salento peninsula Southern Italy. Ann Geofis 44:527–540Google Scholar
  2. Baillon S, Hamel JF, Wareham VE, et al (2012) Deep cold-water corals as nurseries for fish larvae. Front Ecol Environ 10:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bargain A, Marchese F, Savini A, et al (2017) Santa Maria di Leuca province (Mediterranean Sea): identification of suitable mounds for cold-water coral settlement using geomorphometric proxies and maxent methods. Front Mar Sci 4:338.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00338
  4. Boavida J, Assis J, Silva I, et al (2016) Overlooked habitat of a vulnerable gorgonian revealed in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic by ecological niche modelling. Sci Rep 6:36460.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36460 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Budillon G, Lo Bue N, Siena S, et al (2010) Hydrographic characteristics of water masses in the northern Ionian Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:441–457Google Scholar
  6. Brown CJ, Todd BJ, Kostylev VE, et al (2011) Image-based classification of multibeam sonar backscatter data for objective surficial sediment mapping of Georges Bank, Canada. Cont Shelf Res 31:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carminati E, Doglioni C (2012) Alps vs. Apennines: the paradigm of a tectonically asymmetric Earth. Earth Sci Rev 112:67–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cartes JE, Lo Iacono C, Mamouridis V, et al (2013) Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: to what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates? Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 76:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coiras E, Lo Iacono C, Gràcia E, et al (2010) Automatic segmentation of multi-beam data for predictive mapping of benthic habitats. Geosci Remote Sens Lett 4:809–813.  https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2011.2123874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corselli C (2010) Introduction: cold-water coral communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davies AJ, Wisshak M, Orr JC, et al (2008) Predicting suitable habitat for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 55–8:1048–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies JS, Guillaumont B, Tempera F, et al (2017) A cold-water coral biota classification scheme for ecosystem-based management of the deep sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:102–109Google Scholar
  13. D’Onghia G, Maiorano P, Sion L, et al (2010) Effects of deep-water coral banks on the abundance and size structure of the megafauna in the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Onghia G, Maiorano P, Carlucci R, et al (2012) Comparing deep-sea fish Fauna between coral and non-coral “megahabitats” in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea). PLoS One 7:e44509.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Onghia G, Calculli C, Capezzuto F, et al (2017) Anthropogenic impact in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea): observations and conservation straits. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:87–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Mol B, Amblas D, Calafat A, et al (2012) Cold-water coral colonization of Alboran Sea Knolls, Western Mediterranean Sea. In: Harris P, Baker E (eds) Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Boston, pp 819–829Google Scholar
  17. de Juan S, Lleonart J (2010) A conceptual framework for the protection of vulnerable habitats impacted by fishing activities in the Mediterranean high seas. Ocean Coast Manag 53:717–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Juan S, Moranta J, Hinz H, et al (2012) A regional network of sustainable managed areas as the way forward for the implementation of an Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management in the Mediterranean. Ocean Coast Manag 65:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Juan S, Lo Iacono C, Demestre M (2013) Benthic habitat characterisation of soft-bottom continental shelves: integration of acoustic surveys, benthic samples and trawling disturbance intensity. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 117:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duggen S, Hoernle K, van de Bogaard H (2004) Magmatic evolution of the Alboran region: the role of subduction in forming the western Mediterranean and causing the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 218:91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Etiope G, Savini A, Lo Bue N, et al (2010) Deep sea survey for the detection of methane at the “Santa Maria di Leuca” cold-water coral mounds (Ionian Sea, South Italy). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:431–440Google Scholar
  22. European Parliament, Council of the European Union (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union L 164/19Google Scholar
  23. Evans J, Aguilar R, Alvarez H, et al (2016) Recent evidence that the deep sea around Malta is a biodiversity hotspot. Rapp Comm Int Mer Méditerr 41:2016Google Scholar
  24. Fabri MC, Pedel N, Beuck L, et al (2014) Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 104:184–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fabri MC, Bargain A, Pairaud I, et al (2016) Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: an assessment of their environmental living conditions. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 137:436–453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fanelli E, Delbono I, Vivaldi R, et al (2016) Cold-water coral Madrepora oculata in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean): historical and recent findings. Aquat Conserv 27:965–975.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Farmer A, Mee L, Langmead O, et al (2012) The ecosystem approach in marine management. EU FP7 KNOWSEAS Project. ISBN: 0-9529089-5-6Google Scholar
  28. Ferrini VL, Flood RD (2006) The effects of fine-scale surface roughness and grain size on 300 kHz multibeam backscatter intensity in sandy marine sedimentary environments. Mar Geol 228:153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fink HG, Wienberg C, Hebbeln D, et al (2012) Oxygen control on Holocene cold-water coral development in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 62:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fink HG, Wienberg C, De Pol-Holz R, et al (2013) Cold-water coral growth in the Alboran Sea related to high productivity during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Mar Geol 339:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, et al (2004) Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Freiwald A, Beuck L, Rüggerberg A, et al (2009) The white coral community in the Central Mediterranean Sea revealed by ROV surveys. Oceanography 22:36–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freiwald A, Huhnerbach V, Lindberg B, et al (2002) The Sula Reef Complex, Norwegian Shelf. Facies 47:179–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao D, Hurst SD, Karson JA, et al (1998) Computer-aided interpretation of side-looking sonar images from the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Kane transform. J Geophys Res 103:20997–21014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. GFCM-RAC/S (2007) Report of the transversal workshop on marine protected areas (MPAs), Salammbô, Tunisia, p 34Google Scholar
  36. Gibson PJ, Power CH (2000) Introductory remote sensing: digital image processing and applications. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Gili JM, Coma R (1998) Benthic suspension feeders: their paramount role in littoral marine food webs. Trends Ecol Evol 13:316–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giusti D, Innocenti C, Canese S (2014) Predicting suitable habitat for the gold coral Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) in the South Tyrrhenian Sea. Cont Shelf Res 81:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glogowski S, Dullo WC, Feldens P, et al (2015) The Eugen Seibold coral mounds offshore western Morocco: oceanographic and bathymetric boundary conditions of a newly discovered cold-water coral province. Geo-Mar Lett 35:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Golon J (2014) OSPAR convention (Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic) and OSPAR CommissionGoogle Scholar
  41. Gori A, Orejas C, Madurell T, et al (2013) Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of coldwater coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean). Biogeosciences 9:19053–19084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Green HG, Yoklavich MM, Starr RM, et al (1999) A classification scheme for deep seafloor habitats. Oceanol Acta 22:663–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grehan AJ, Arnaud-haond S, D’onghia G, et al (2017) Towards ecosystem based management and monitoring of the deep Mediterranean, North-East Atlantic and Beyond. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grinyó J, Gori A, Ambroso S, et al (2016) Diversity, distribution and population size structure of deep Mediterranean gorgonian assemblages (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea). Progr Oceanogr 145:42–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guinan J, Grehan AJ, Dolan MFJ, et al (2000) Quantifying relationships between video observations of cold-water coral cover and seafloor features in Rockall Trough, west of Ireland. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 375:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haralick RM (1973) Textural features for image classification. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern SMC-3:610–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haralick R (1979) Statistical and structural approaches to texture. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 67:786–804Google Scholar
  48. Huvenne VAI, Blondel P, Henriet JP (2002) Textural analyses of sidescan sonar imagery from two mound provinces in the Porcupine Seabight. Mar Geol 189:323–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huvenne VAI, Bett B, Masson D, et al (2016) Effectiveness of a deep-sea cold-water coral Marine Protected Area, following eight years of fisheries closure. Biol Conserv 200:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Indennidate A, Carlucci R, Maiorano P, et al (2010) Fishing effort and catch composition on the boundaries of Santa Maria di Leuca deep-water coral bank. Biol Mar Mediterr 17:340–341Google Scholar
  51. Ismail K, Huvenne V, Masson D (2015) Objective automated classification technique for marine landscape mapping in submarine canyons. Mar Geol 362:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. LaFrance M, King JW, Oakley BA, et al (2014) A comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches to benthic habitat mapping to inform offshore wind energy development. Cont Shelf Res 83:24–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lauria V, Gristina M, Attrill MJ, et al (2015) Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Sci Rep 5:13245.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13245 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Lo Iacono C, Gràcia E, Diez S, et al (2008) Seafloor characterization and backscatter variability of the Almería Margin (Alboran Sea, SW Mediterranean) based on high-resolution acoustic data. Mar Geol 250:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lo Iacono C, Gracia E, Bartolomé R, et al (2011) Geo-acoustic characterization and habitat distribution in the Chella Bank (Eastern Alboran Sea – SW Mediterranean). In: Abstract of the GeoHab marine geological and biological habitat mapping conference. Helsinki, 3–6 May 2011Google Scholar
  56. Lo Iacono C, Gràcia E, Bartolomé R, et al (2012a) The habitats of the Chella Bank. Eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). In: Harris P, Baker E (eds) Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lo Iacono C, Orejas C, Gori A, et al (2012b) The habitats of the Cap de Creus continental shelf and Cap de Creus Canyon, northwestern Mediterranean. In: Harris P, Baker E (eds) Seafloor geomorphology as Benthic habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lo Iacono C, Gracia E, Ranero C, et al (2014) The West Melilla cold water coral mounds, Eastern Alboran Sea: morphological characterization and environmental context. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lo Iacono C, Huvenne VAI, Gonzalez LV, et al (2016) Living reefs and CWC mounds in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). Holocene evolution and present-day conditions. 6th ISDSC, 11–16 September, Boston, USAGoogle Scholar
  60. Lo Iacono C, Savini A, Basso D (2018a) Cold-water carbonate bioconstructions In: Micallef A, Krastel S, Savini A (eds) Submarine geomorphology. Springer Geology, Cham, pp 425–455Google Scholar
  61. Lo Iacono C, Robert K, Villanueva Gonzalez R, et al (2018b) Predicting cold-water coral distribution in the Cap de Creus Canyon (NW Mediterranean): implications for marine conservation planning. Progr Oceanogr 169:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. López-González PJ, Grinyó J, Gili JM (2014) Chironephthya mediterranea n. sp. (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae), the first species of the genus discovered in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodiver.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-014-0269-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Malinverno E, Taviani M, Rosso A, et al (2010) Stratigraphic framework of the Apulian deep-water coral province, Ionian Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Manca BB, Ibello V, Pacciaroni M, et al (2006) Ventilation of the deep waters in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas following changes in the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Clim Res 31:239–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mastrototaro F, D’Onghia G, Corriero G, et al (2010) Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): an update. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:412–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mastrototaro F, Chimienti G, Acosta J, et al (2017) Isidella elongata (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) facies in the western Mediterranean Sea: visual surveys and descriptions of its ecological role. Eur Zool J 8:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Masson DG, Bett BJ, Billett DSM, et al (2003) The origin of deep-water, coral-topped mounds in the northern Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic. Mar Geol 194:159–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Micheli F, Levin N, Giakoumi S, et al (2013) Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS One 8:e59038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Milliman JD, Weiler Y, Stanley DJ (1972) Morphology and carbonate sedimentation on Shallow Banks in the Alboran Sea. In: Stanley DJ (ed) The Mediterranean Sea: a natural sedimentation laboratory. Dowden, Huthcinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 241–259Google Scholar
  70. Mytilineou C, Smith CJ, Anastasopoulou A, et al (2014) New cold-water coral occurrences in the Eastern Ionian Sea: results from experimental longline fishing. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 99:146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Muñoz A, Ballesteros M, Montoya I, et al (2008) Alborán Basin, southern Spain – Part I: Geomorphology. Mar Pet Geol 25:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oceana (2011) Oceana MedNet, MPA proposal for the Mediterranean Sea. 100 reasons to reach 10%. Oceana, Madrid, p 96Google Scholar
  73. Oceana (2014) Scientific information to describe Mediterranean areas meeting scientific criteria for EBSAs. Oceana, Madrid, p 143Google Scholar
  74. Oceana, IEO (2014) Informe de síntesis para proceder a la elaboración del borrador del Plan de Gestión del LIC “Sur de Almería-Seco de los Olivos”: Seco de los Olivos. Proyecto LIFE + INDEMARES (LIFE07/NAT/E/00732). OCEANA – Instituto Español de Oceanografía. Coordinación: Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  75. Oguz T, Macias D, Garcia-Lafuente J, et al (2014) Fueling plankton production by a meandering frontal jet: a case study for the alboran sea (Western Mediterranean). PLoS One 9:e111482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Orejas C, Gori A, Lo Iacono C, et al (2009) Distribution of the deep corals Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia cornigera, and quantification of anthropogenic impact in the Cap de Creus Canyon (North Western Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Progr Ser 397:37–51Google Scholar
  77. Palonimo D, Alonso B, Lo Iacono C, et al (2015) Seamounts and seamount-like structures of the Alborán Sea. In: Würtz M, Rovere M (eds) Atlas of the Mediterranean seamounts and seamount-like structures. IUCN, Gland/Málaga, p 276Google Scholar
  78. Pierdomenico M, Martorelli E, Dominguez-Carrió C, et al (2016) Seafloor characterization and benthic megafaunal distribution of an active submarine canyon and surrounding sectors: the case of Gioia Canyon (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). J Mar Syst 157:101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pontius RG, Millones M (2011) Death to Kappa: birth of quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment. Int J Remote Sens 32:4407–4429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ramirez-Llodra E, Brandt A, Danovaro R, et al (2010) Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world’s largest ecosystem. Biogeosciences 7:2851–2899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reed TB, Hussong D (1989) Digital image processing techniques for enhancement and classification of SeaMARC II side-scan sonar imagery. J Geophys Res 94(B6):7469–7490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reed J (2002) Deepwater Oculina Coral Reefs of Florida: biology, impacts and management. Hydrobiologia 471:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Robert K, Jones D, Tyler P, et al (2015) Finding the hotspots within a biodiversity hotspot: fine-scale biological predictions within a submarine canyon using high-resolution acoustic mapping techniques. Mar Ecol 36:1256–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Robert K, Jones D, Roberts M, et al (2016) Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 113:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts JM, Wheeler AJ, Freiwald A, et al (2009) Cold-water corals: the biology and geology of deep-sea coral habitats. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 334.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511581588
  86. Rosso A, Vertino A, Di Geronimo I, et al (2010) Hard versus soft-bottom thanatofacies from the Santa Maria di Leuca deep-water coral mound province, recent Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:360–379Google Scholar
  87. Savini A (2004) Analysis of Marine Acoustic Geophysical data and their management in GIS applications. PhD thesis, University of Milano-BicoccaGoogle Scholar
  88. Savini A, Corselli C (2010) High resolution bathymetry and acoustic geophysical data from Santa Maria di Leuca cold water coral province (northern Ionian Sea–Apulian continental slope). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:326–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Savini A, Marchese F, Verdicchio G, et al (2016) Submarine slide topography and the distribution of vulnerable marine ecosystems: a case study in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). In: Lamarche G, Mountjoy J, Bull S, et al (eds) Submarine mass movements and their consequences: 7th international symposium. Springer, Cham, pp 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Savini A, Vertino A, Marchese F, et al (2014) Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability. Plos One 9:e87108.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087108 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Schembri PJ, Dimech M, Camilleri M, et al (2007) Living deep-water Lophelia and Madrepora corals in Maltese waters (Strait of Siciliy, Mediterranean Sea). Cah Biol Mar 48:77–83Google Scholar
  92. Söffker M, Sloman KA, Hall-Spencer JM (2011) In situ observations of fish associated with coral reefs off Ireland. Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 58:818–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Taviani M, Freiwald A, Zibrowius H (2005a) Deep-coral growth in the Mediterranean Sea: an overview. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Deep-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  94. Taviani M, Remia A, Corselli C, et al (2005b) First geo-marine survey of living cold-water Lophelia reefs in the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean basin). Facies 50:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Taviani M, Angeletti L, et al (2017) The “Sardinian cold-water coral province” in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 145:61–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tonielli R, Innangi S, Budillon F, et al (2016) Distribution of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows around Lampedusa Island (Strait of Sicily, Italy). J Maps 12:249–260.  https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3443966.v1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trincardi F, Foglini F, Verdicchio G, et al (2007) The impact of cascading currents on the Bari Canyon System, SW-Adriatic Margin (Central Mediterranean). Mar Geol 246:208–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Uitz J, Stramski D, Gentili B, et al (2012) Estimates of phytoplankton class-specific and total primary production in the Mediterranean Sea from satellite ocean color observations. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 26:GB2024.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA (2009) Synthesis of National Overviews on vulnerability and impacts of climate change on marine and coastal biological diversity in the Mediterranean region. Pavasovic A, Cebrian D, Limam A, et al (eds), RAC/SPA, Tunis, p 76Google Scholar
  100. UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA (2010) The Mediterranean Sea biodiversity: state of the ecosystems, pressures, impacts and future priorities. Bazairi H, Ben Haj S, Boero F, et al (eds) RAC/SPA, Tunis, p 100Google Scholar
  101. UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA (2011) In: Scovazzi T (ed) Note on the establishment of marine protected areas beyond national jurisdiction or in areas where the limits of national sovereignty or jurisdiction have not yet been defined in the Mediterranean Sea. RAC/SPA, Tunis, p 54Google Scholar
  102. UNGA (2006) Resolution 61/105. Sustainable Fisheries, Including through the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and Related Instruments, United Nations, p 21Google Scholar
  103. Urgelés R, Locat J, Schmitt T, et al (2002) The July 1996 flood deposit in the Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada: implications for sources of spatial and temporal backscatter variations. Mar Geol 184:41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vertino A, Savini A, Rosso A, et al (2010) Benthic habitat characterization and distribution from two representative sites of the deep-water SML Coral Mound Province (Mediterranean). Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:380–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wynn RB, Huvenne VAI, Le Bas TP, et al (2014) Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs): their past, present and future contributions to the advancement of marine geoscience. Mar Geol 352:451–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wright DJ, Pendleton M, Boulware J, et al (2012) ArcGISBenthic Terrain Modeler (BTM), v. 3.0, Environmental Systems Research Institute, NOAA Coastal Services Center, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. Available online at: http://esriurl.com/5754

Cross References

  1. Angeletti L, Bargain A, Campiani E, et al (this volume) Cold-water coral habitat mapping in the Mediterranean Sea: methodologies and perspectivesGoogle Scholar
  2. Aymà A, Aguzzi J, Canals M, et al (this volume) Occurrence of living cold-water corals at large depths within submarine canyons of the northwestern Mediterranean SeaGoogle Scholar
  3. Chimienti G, Bo M, Taviani M, et al (this volume) Occurrence and biogeography of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Onghia G (this volume) Cold-water coral as shelter, feeding and life-history critical habitats for fish species: ecological interactions and fishing impactGoogle Scholar
  5. Hebbeln D (this volume) Highly variable submarine landscapes in the Alborán Sea created by cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  6. Knittweis L, Evans J, Aguilar R, et al (this volume) Recent discoveries of extensive cold-water coral assemblages in Maltese watersGoogle Scholar
  7. Lastras G, Sanchez-Vidal A, Canals M (this volume) A cold-water coral habitat in La Fonera submarine canyon, northwestern Mediterranean SeaGoogle Scholar
  8. Maier C, Weinbauer MG, Gattuso JP (this volume) Fate of Mediterranean scleractinian cold-water corals as a result of global climate change. A synthesisGoogle Scholar
  9. Movilla J (this volume) A case study: variability in the calcification response of Mediterranean cold-water corals to ocean acidificationGoogle Scholar
  10. Orejas C, Jiménez C, Gori A, et al (this volume) Corals of Aphrodite: Dendrophyllia ramea populations of CyprusGoogle Scholar
  11. Otero M, Marin P (this volume) Conservation of cold-water corals in the Mediterranean: current status and future prospects for improvementGoogle Scholar
  12. Palomino D, Rueda JL, Vázquez JT, et al (this volume) Cold-water corals in fluid venting submarine structuresGoogle Scholar
  13. Wienberg C (this volume) A deglacial cold-water coral boom in the Alborán Sea: from coral mounds and species dominanceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Lo Iacono
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alessandra Savini
    • 3
  • Veerle A. I. Huvenne
    • 4
  • Eulàlia Gràcia
    • 2
  1. 1.National Oceanography CentreUniversity of Southampton Waterfront CampusSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Spanish National Research CouncilMarine Sciences InstituteBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanoItaly
  4. 4.Marine Geoscience – Seafloor Processes and Habitats Group, National Oceanography CentreUniversity of Southampton Waterfront CampusSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations