Advertisement

14 Taxonomy, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mediterranean Deep-Sea Corals and Cold-Water Corals

  • Alvaro AltunaEmail author
  • Angelo Poliseno
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 9)

Abstract

Within the Mediterranean basin there are 82 species of deep-sea corals belonging to six orders of the phylum Cnidaria (Antipatharia, Scleractinia, Zoantharia, Alcyonacea, Pennatulacea and Anthoathecata), with the Alcyonacea (40) and the Scleractinia (25) being the most speciose. Thirteen species have a pronounced habitat-building ability at depths >200 m. Remarkable sites characterised by rich coral frameworks and gardens have been found in biodiversity surveys during the last years, revealing that some species are more abundant than previously thought. However, in terms of species richness, the Mediterranean deep-sea coral fauna is less diverse when compared with the nearby Atlantic areas. This discrepancy is probably in part due to unfavourable environmental conditions of the deep Mediterranean Sea, and to differences in sampling efforts between both areas. In this respect, considerable efforts have been recently done in terms of deep-sea fauna inventories. Nevertheless, updates made to the Mediterranean inventory of deep-sea corals since the beginning of the twenty-first century are few except for the octocorals. Therefore, ten species were included to the Mediterranean inventory, among which two have been newly described. The species concerned belong to the orders Scleractinia (1), Pennatulacea (1) and Alcyonacea (8).

Keywords

Cnidaria Cold-water corals Mediterranean Sea Taxonomy Genetics Biodiversity Deep-sea 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to Ricardo Aguilar for kindly sending pictures of OCEANA and the Life+Bahar Project (LIFE12 NAT/MT/000845) that contributed to enrich this chapter, and to Carlos Farias and the late Miguel Villena for sending material from the MEDITS 2015 cruise and the MNCN in Madrid, respectively. The cruise was co-funded by the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) and the EU through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF). We would also like to thank Marzia Bo, Nadia Santodomingo and Covadonga Orejas for their insightful comments to this chapter.

References

  1. Abdelsalam KM (2014) Faunistic study of benthic Pennatulacea (Cndaria, Octocorallia) from the northern coast of Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 40:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addamo AM, Reimer JD, Taviani M, et al (2012) Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) in the Scleractinian phylogeny and its intraspecific diversity. PLoS One 7:e50215.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050215 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Addamo AM, García-Jiménez R, Taviani M, et al (2015) Development of microsatellite markers in the deep-sea cup coral Desmophyllum dianthus by 454 sequencing and cross-species amplifications in Scleractinia order. J Hered 106:322–330PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Addamo AM, Vertino A, Stolarski J, et al (2016) Merging scleractinian genera: the overwhelming genetic similarity between solitary Desmophyllum and colonial Lophelia. BMC Evol Biol 16:108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alderslade P, McFadden C (2007) Pinnule-less polyps: a new genus and new species of Indo-Pacific Clavulariidae and validation of the soft coral genus Acrossota and the family Acrossotidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Zootaxa 1400:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altuna A (2015) Cnidarios bentónicos (Cnidaria) del Golfo de Vizcaya y zonas próximas (Atlántico NE) (42° N a 48°30’N y 13° W). Lista de especies, batimetría y anotaciones. Available via http://www.fauna-iberica.mncn.csic.es/faunaib/altuna9.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2016
  7. Altuna A, Sinniger F, Aldrey JM (2010) Occurrence of Savalia savaglia (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, North-Western Spain, North-Eastern Atlantic). Mar Biodivers Rec 3:e1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Álvarez-Pérez G, Busquets P, de Mol B, et al (2005) Deep-water coral occurrences in the Strait of Gibraltar. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp 207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alves Santos ME, Kitahara MV, Lindner A, et al (2015) Overview of the order Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) in Brazil. Mar Biodivers.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-015-0396-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ambroso S, Dominguez-Carrió C, Grinyó J, et al (2013) In situ observations on withdrawal behaviour of the sea pen Virgularia mirabilis. Oceanarium.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-013-0172-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Angeletti L, Taviani M, Canese S, et al (2014) New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea. Mediterr Mar Sci 15:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Angiolillo M, Bo M, Bavestrello G, et al (2012) Record of Ellisella paraplexauroides (Anthozoa: Alcyonacea: Ellisellidae) in Italian waters (Mediterranean Sea). Mar Biodivers Rec 5:e4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arrigoni R, Kitano YK, Stolarski J, et al (2014) A phylogeny reconstruction of the Dendrophylliidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) based on molecular and micromorphological criteria, and its ecological implications. Zool Scr 43:661–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baillon S, Hamel JF, Wareham VE, et al (2012) Deep cold-water corals as nurseries for fish larvae. Front Ecol Environ 10:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrier P, Zibrowius H, Lozouet P, et al (1991) Une faune de fond dur du bathyal supérieur dans le Miocene terminal des cordillères bétiques (Carboneras, SE Espagne). Mesogée 51:3–13Google Scholar
  16. Bayer FM (1956) Octocorallia. In: Moore RC (ed), Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Pt F (Coelenterata). The University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, pp F166–F231Google Scholar
  17. Bayer FM (1961) The shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian region. A manual for marine biologists. Stud Fauna Curaçao 12:1–373Google Scholar
  18. Bayer FM (1981) Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive of Pennatulacea (Coelenterata: Anthozoa), with diagnoses of new taxa. Proc Biol Soc Wash 94:901–947Google Scholar
  19. Bayer FM, Grasshoff M (1994) The genus group taxa of the family Ellisellidae, with clarification of the genera established by J. E. Gray. Senckenb Biol 74:21–45Google Scholar
  20. Bayer FM, Grasshoff M, Verseveldt J (eds) (1983) Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. Brill EJ, Backhuys W, Leiden, 75 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Bo M (2008) Taxonomy and ecology of antipatharians. Dissertation, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 212 pGoogle Scholar
  22. Bo M, Tazioli S, Spanò N, et al (2008) Antipathella subpinnata (Antipatharia, Myriopathidae) in Italian seas. Ital J Zool 75:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bo M, Bavestrello G, Canese S, et al (2011) Coral assemblage off the Calabrian Coast (South Italy) with new observations on living colonies of Antipathes dichotoma. Ital J Zool 78:231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bo M, Canese S, Spaggiari C, et al (2012a) Deep coral oases in the south Tyrrhenian Sea. PLoS One 7:e49870.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049870 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bo M, Lavorato A, Di Camillo CG, et al (2012b) Black coral assemblages from Machalilla National Park (Ecuador). Pac Sci 66:63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bo M, Canese S, Bavestrello G (2014) Discovering Mediterranean black coral forests: Parantipathes larix (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Tuscan Archipelago, Italy. Ital J Zool 81:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bo M, Bavestrello G, Angiolillo M, et al (2015) Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia). PLoS One 10:e0119393.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119393 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boero F, Bouillon J (1993) Zoogeography and life cycle patterns of Mediterranean hydromedusae (Cnidaria). Biol J Linn Soc 48:239–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bouillon J, Medel MD, Pagès F, et al (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean hydrozoa. Sci Mar 68:5–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bouillon J, Gravili C, Pagès F, et al (2006) An introduction to hydrozoa. Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat, Paris 194:1–591Google Scholar
  31. Bridge D, Cunningham CW, DeSalle R, et al (1995) Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: molecular and morphological evidence. Mol Biol Evol 12:679–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brook G (1889) Report on the Antipatharia. In: Thomson CW, Murray J (eds) Report on the scientific results of the voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger, vol 32. Royal Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Bruckner AW (2009) Rate and extent of decline in Corallium (pink and red coral) populations: existing data meet the requirements for a CITES Appendix II listing. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 397:319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brugler MR, France SC (2007) The complete mitochondrial genome of the black coral Chrysopathes formosa (Cnidaria:Anthozoa:Antipatharia) supports classification of antipatharians within the subclass Hexacorallia. Mol Phylogenet Evol 42:776–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brugler MR, Opresko DM, France SC (2013) The evolutionary history of the order Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) as inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA: implications for black coral taxonomy and systematic. Zool J Linnean Soc 169:312–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Budd A, Stolarski J (2009) Searching for new morphological characters in the systematic of scleractinian reef corals: comparison of septal teeth and granules between Atlantic and Pacific Mussidae. Acta Zool 90:142–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Budd A, Romano SL, Smith ND, et al (2010) Rethinking the phylogeny of scleractinian corals: a review of morphological and molecular data. Integr Comp Biol 50:411–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cairns SD (1984) A generic revision of the Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 2. Phylogenetic analysis. Bull Mar Sci 35:38–53Google Scholar
  39. Cairns SD (1992) Worldwide distribution of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Sci Mar 56:125–130Google Scholar
  40. Cairns SD (1997) A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Turbinoliidae (Cnidaria: Scleractinia). Smithson Contrib Zool 591:1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cairns SD (2000) A revision of the shallow-water azooxanthellate Scleractinia of the western Atlantic. Stud Nat Hist Caribbean Region 75:1–231Google Scholar
  42. Cairns SD (2001) A generic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Dendrophylliidae. Smithson Contrib Zool 615:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cairns SD (2007) Deep-water corals: an overview with special reference to diversity and distribution of deep-water scleractinian corals. Bull Mar Sci 81:311–322Google Scholar
  44. Cairns SD (2011) Global diversity of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecatae). PLoS One 6(7):e21670.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021670 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Cairns SD (2015) Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata) of the New Caledonian Region. Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat, Paris 207:1–361Google Scholar
  46. Cairns SD, Kitahara MV (2012) An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary. Zookeys 227:1–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cairns S, Schuchert P (2010) Stylasteridae Gray, 1847. Available via WoRMS. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=22805. Accessed 30 Aug 2016
  48. Carlgren O (1895) Ueber die Gattung Gerardia Lac.-Duth. Öfvers Kongl Vetensk Akad Förh 5:319–334Google Scholar
  49. Carpine C (1964) Un octocoralliaire nouveau pour la Méditerranée: Scleranthelia musiva Studer, 1878. Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 65:1–10Google Scholar
  50. Carpine C, Grasshoff M (1975) Les gorgonaires de la Méditerranée. Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 71:1–140Google Scholar
  51. Cartes JE, Lo Iacono C, Mamouridis V, et al (2013) Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: to what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates? Deep-Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 76:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cerrano C, Danovaro R, Gambi C, et al (2010) Gold coral (Savalia savaglia) and gorgonian forests enhance benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the mesophotic zone. Biodivers Conserv 19:153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chimienti G, Maiorano P, Mastrototaro F (2015) Pennatula rubra facies in the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean). Biol Mar Mediterr 22:76–80Google Scholar
  54. Costantini F, Taviani M, Remia A, et al (2010) Deep-water Corallium rubrum (L., 1758) from the Mediterranean Sea: preliminary genetic characterisation. Mar Ecol 31:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Costantini F, Carlesi L, Abbiati M (2013) Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum. PLoS One 8:e61546.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061546 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Costantini F, Gori A, Lopez-González P, et al (2016) Limited genetic connectivity between gorgonian morphotypes along a depth gradient. PLoS One 11:e0160678.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160678 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dahl M (2013) Conservation genetics of Lophelia pertusa. Dissertation, University of GothenburgGoogle Scholar
  58. Daly M, Fautin DG, Cappola VA (2003) Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zool J Linnean Soc 139:419–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Daly M, Brugler MR, Cartwright P, et al (2007) The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668:127–182Google Scholar
  60. De Clippele LH, Buhl-Mortensen P, Buhl-Mortensen L (2015) Fauna associated with cold water gorgonians and sea pens. Cont Shelf Res 195:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Di Geronimo I, Messina C, Rosso A, et al (2005) Enhanced biodiversity in the deep: early Pleistocene coral communities from southern Italy. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin pp 61–86Google Scholar
  62. Dolan E, Tyler PA, Yesson C, et al (2013) Phylogeny and systematics of deep-sea sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). Mol Phylogenet Evol 69:610–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Druffel ERM, Griffin S, Witter A, et al (1995) Gerardia: bristlecone pine of the deep-sea? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:5031–5036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Emblem S, Karlsen BO, Evertsen J, et al (2011) Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron. Mol Phylogenet Evol 61:495–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Emig C, Geistdoerfer P (2004) The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: historical evolution, bathymetric variations and geographical changes. Carnets Géol 4:1–10Google Scholar
  66. Fabri MC, Pedel L (2012) Habitats particuliers du bathyal et de l’abyssal/SRM MO, 10 p.  https://doi.org/10.13155/34118
  67. Fabricius K, Alderslade P (2001) Soft corals and sea fans. A comprehensive guide to the tropical shallow-water genera of the Central-West Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 264 pGoogle Scholar
  68. Flot JF, Dahl M, André C (2013) Lophelia pertusa corals from the Ionian and Barents seas share identical nuclear ITS2 and near-identical mitochondrial genome sequences. BMC Res Notes 6:144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. France SC, Hoover LL (2001) Analysis of variation in mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND3, ND4L, MSH) among Octocorallia (= Alcyonaria) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Bull Biol Soc Wash 10:110–118Google Scholar
  70. Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, et al (2004) Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  71. Freiwald A, Beuck L, Rüggeberg A, et al (2009) The white coral community in the Central Mediterranean Sea revealed by ROV surveys. Oceanography 22:58–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Galil B, Zibrowius H (1992) First benthos samples from Eratosthenes Seamount, Eastern Mediterranean. Senckenb Mar 28:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Giacobbe S (2001) Distribuzione areale e batimetrica della facies a Errina aspera L. (Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae) nello Stretto di Messina. Biol Mar Mediterr 8:246–251Google Scholar
  74. Giacobbe S, Laria G, Spanò N (2007) Hard bottom assemblages in the strait of Messina: distribution of Errina aspera L.(Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae). Rapp Comm Int Mer Médit 38:485Google Scholar
  75. Gili JM, Pagès F (1987) Pennatuláceos (Cnidaria, Anthoza) recolectados en la plataforma continental catalana (Mediterráneo occidental). Misc Zool 11:25–39Google Scholar
  76. Giusti M, Bo M, Bavestrello G, et al (2012) Record of Viminella flagellum (Alcyonacea: Ellisellidae) in Italian waters (Mediterranean Sea). Mar Biodivers Rec 5:e34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Giusti M, Cerrano C, Angiolillo M, et al (2015) An updated overview of the geographic and bathymetric distribution of Savalia savaglia. Mediterr Mar Sci 16:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Goffredo S, Di Ceglie S, Zaccanti F (2009) Genetic differentiation of the temperate-subtropical stony coral Leptopsammia pruvoti in the Mediterranean Sea. Isr J Ecol Evol 55:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gori A, Orejas C, Madurell T, et al (2013) Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean). Biogeosciences 10:2049–2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Grasshoff M (1972) Die Gorgonaria des östlichen Nordatlantik und des Mittelmeeres. I. Die Familie Ellisellidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). “Meteor” Forsch-Ergebn (D) 10:73–87Google Scholar
  81. Grasshoff M (1973) Die Gorgonaria des östlichen Nordatlantik und des Mittelmeeres. II. Die Gattung Acanthogorgia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). “Meteor” Forsch-Ergebn (D) 13:1–10Google Scholar
  82. Grasshoff M (1977) Die Gorgonaria des östlichen Nordatlantik und des Mittelmeeres. III. Die Familie Paramuriceidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). “Meteor” Forsch-Ergebn (D) 27:5–76Google Scholar
  83. Grasshoff M (1980) Isididae aus dem Pliozän und Pleistozän von Sizilien (Cnidaria : Octocorallia). Senckenb Lethaea 60:435–447Google Scholar
  84. Grasshoff M (1988) The genus Leptogorgia (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae) in West Africa. Atlantide Rep 14:91–147Google Scholar
  85. Grasshoff M (1989) Die Meerenge von Gibraltar als Faunen-Barriere: Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia der Balgim-Expedition (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Senckenb Marit 20:201–223Google Scholar
  86. Grasshoff M (1992) Die Flachwasser-Gorgonarien von Europa und Westafrika (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Cour Forschungsinst Senckenb 149:1–135Google Scholar
  87. Gravier C (1918) Note sur les Antipathaires du Golfe de Naples. Pubbl Staz Zool Napoli 2:223–239Google Scholar
  88. Grinyó J, Gori A, Ambroso S, et al (2016) Diversity, distribution and population size structure of deep Mediterranean gorgonian assemblages (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea). Progr Oceanogr 145:42–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Häussermann V, Försterra G, Weinberg S, et al (2003a) Klasse Anthozoa (Blumentiere). In: Hofrichter R (ed) Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, II/1. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 410–411Google Scholar
  90. Häussermann V, Försterra G, Opresko D, et al (2003b) Unterklasse Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1866. In: Hofrichter R (ed) Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, II/1. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 444–449Google Scholar
  91. Hickson SJ (1916) The Pennatulacea of the Siboga expedition, with a general survey of the order. Siboga Expeditie Monogr 14:1–265Google Scholar
  92. Hoeksema B, Cairns S (2013) Cladocora Ehrenberg, 1834. Available via WORMS. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=22805. Accesed 30 Nov 2016
  93. Hughes DJ (1998) Sea pens and burrowing megafauna (volume III). An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science, ObanGoogle Scholar
  94. Hyman LH (1940) The invertebrates: protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw HillBook Company, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  95. Ingrassia M, Macelloni L, Bosman A, et al (2015) Black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) forest near the western Pontine Islands (Tyrrhenian Sea). Mar Biodivers 16:285─290Google Scholar
  96. Jiménez C, Orejas C (2017) The builders of the oceans – part II: corals from the past to the present (the stone from the sea). In: Rossi S, Bramanti L, Gori A, et al (eds) Marine animal forests: The Ecology of Benthic Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer, Cham, pp 657–698  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17001-5_56-1 Google Scholar
  97. Jiménez C, Achilleos K, Abu Alhaija R, et al (2016) Living in close quarters: epibionts on Dendrophyllia ramea deep-water corals (Cyprus and Menorca channel). Rapp Comm Int Mer Médit 41:466Google Scholar
  98. Kayal E, Roure B, Philippe H, et al (2013) Cnidarian phylogenetics relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evol Biol.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-5 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kise H, Reimer JD (2016) Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific Ocean. ZooKeys 562:49–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kitahara MV, Cairns SD, Miller DJ (2010a) Monophyletic origin of Caryophyllia (Scleractina, Caryophylliidae), with decription of six new species. Syst Biodivers 8:91–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kitahara MV, Cairns SD, Stolarski J, et al (2010b) A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial CO1 sequence data. PLoS One 5:e11490.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011490 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kitahara MV, Fukami H, Benzoni F, et al (2016) The new systematics of Scleractinia: integrating molecular and morphological evidence. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Cnidaria, past, present and future. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kükenthal W (1915) Pennatularia. Das Tierreich 43:1–132Google Scholar
  104. Kükenthal W, Broch H (1911) Pennatulacea. Wiss Ergebn Dt Tiefsee-Exped ‘Valdivia’ 1889–1899, 13:113–576Google Scholar
  105. Lacaze-Duthiers H (1864a) Mémoire sur les Antipathaires (Gen. Gerardia, L.D). Ann Sci Nat B 2:169–239Google Scholar
  106. Lacaze-Duthiers H (1864b) Histoire naturelle du corail. J. B. Baillière et Fils, ParisGoogle Scholar
  107. Langton RW, Langton EW, Theroux RB et al (1990) Distribution, behavior and abundance of sea pens, Pennatula aculeata, in the Gulf of Maine. Mar Biol 107:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lapian HFN, Barucca M, Bavestrello G, et al (2007) A systematic study of some black coral species (Antipatharia, Hexacorallia) based on rDNA internal transcribed spacers sequences. Mar Biol 151:785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Laubier L, Emig CC (1993) La faune benthique profonde de Méditerranée. In: Della Croce FR (ed) Symposium Mediterranean Seas 2000. Istituto di Scienze Ambientale Marine, Genova, pp 396–424Google Scholar
  110. Le Goff-Vitry MC, Rogers AD (2005) Molecular ecology of Lophelia pertusa in the NE Atlantic. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin pp 653–662Google Scholar
  111. Le Goff-Vitry MC, Pybus OG, Rogers AD (2004a) Genetic structure of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa in the North East Atlantic revealed by microsatellites and ITS sequences. Mol Ecol 13:537–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Le Goff-Vitry MC, Rogers AD, Baglow D (2004b) A deep-sea slant on the molecular phylogeny of the Scleractinia. Mol Phylogenet Evol 30:167–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ledoux JB, Mokhtar-Jamaï K, Roby C, et al (2010) Genetic survey of shallow populations of the Mediterranean red coral [Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus, 1758)]: new insights into evolutionary processes shaping nuclear diversity and implications for conservation. Mol Ecol 19:675–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lin MF, Kitahara MV, Tachikawa H, et al (2012) Novel organization of the mitochondrial genome in the deep-sea coral, Madrepora oculata (Hexacorallia, Scleractinia, Oculinidae) and its taxonomic implications. Mol Phylogenet Evol 65:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lindner A, Cairns SD, Cunningham CW (2008) From offshore to onshore: multiple origins of shallow-water corals from deep-sea ancestors. PLoS One 3:e2429.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002429 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. López-González PJ (1993) Taxonomía y zoogeografía de los antozoos del Estrecho de Gibraltar y áreas próximas. Dissertation, University of SevilleGoogle Scholar
  117. López-González PJ, Cunha MR (2010) Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae) from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean. Sci Mar 74:423–434Google Scholar
  118. López-González P, Grinyó J, Gili JM (2012) Rediscovery of Cereopsis studeri Koch, 1891, a forgotten Mediterranean soft coral species, and its inclusion in the genus Nidalia Gray, 1835 (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae). Mar Biol Res 8:594–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. López-González P, Grinyó J, Gili JM (2014) Chironephthya mediterranea n.sp. (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae), the first species of the genus discovered in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodiver.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-014-0269-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Madsen FJ (1944) Octocorallia. Danish Ingolf-Exped 5:1–65Google Scholar
  121. Masmoudi MB, Chaoui L, Topçu NE, et al (2016) Contrasted levels of genetic diversity in a benthic Mediterranean octocoral: consequences of different demographic histories? Ecol Evol 6:8665–8678PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mastrototaro F, D’Onghia G, Corriero G, et al (2010) Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): an update. Deep-Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 57:412–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mastrototaro F, Maiorano P, Vertino A, et al (2013) A facies of Kophobelemnon (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). Mar Ecol 34:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mastrototaro F, Chimienti G, Capezzuto F, et al (2014) First record of Protoptilum carpenteri (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) in the Mediterranean Sea. Ital J Zool 82:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mastrototaro F, Chimienti G, Acosta J, et al (2017) Isidella elongata (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) facies in the western Mediterranean Sea: visual surveys and descriptions of its ecological role. Eur Zool J 84:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Maynou F, Cartes JE (2011) Effects of trawling on fish and invertebrates from deep-sea coral facies of Isidella elongata in the western Mediterranean. J Mar Biol Assoc UK:1–7Google Scholar
  127. McFadden CS (1999) Genetic and taxonomic relationships among Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the soft coral Alcyonium coralloides. Mar Biol 133:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McFadden CS, Hutchinson MB (2004) Molecular evidence for the hybrid origin of species in the soft coral genus Alcyonium (Cnidaria. Anthozoa: Octocorallia). Mol Ecol 13:1495–1505PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. McFadden CS, Donahue R, Hadland K, et al (2001) A molecular phylogenetic analysis of reproductive trait evolution in the soft coral genus Alcyonium. Evolution 55:54–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. McFadden CS, France SC, Sánchez JA, et al (2006) A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 41:513–527PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. McFadden CS, Benayahu Y, Pante E, et al (2011) Limitations of mitochondrial gene barcoding in Octocorallia. Mol Ecol Resour 11:19–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mokhtar-Jamaï K, Pascual M, Ledoux JB, et al (2011) From global to local genetic structuring in the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata: the interplay between oceanographic conditions and limited larval dispersal. Mol Ecol 2:3291–3305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Morgan LE (2005) What are deep-sea corals? J Mar Educ 21:1–4Google Scholar
  134. Morri C, Esposito F, Pessani D (2008) Anthozoa. Biol Mar Mediterr 15:92–101Google Scholar
  135. Moseley HN (1879) On the structure of the Stylasteridae, a family of the hydroid stony corals. Phil Trans R Soc London 169:425–503Google Scholar
  136. Ocaña O, Brito A (2004) A review of the Gerardiidae (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) from the Macaronesian Islands and the Mediterranean Sea with the description of a new species. Rev Acad Canar Cienc 15:159–189Google Scholar
  137. Ocaña A, Sánchez Tocino L, López-González PJ (2000a) Consideraciones faunísticas y biogeográficas de los antozoos (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) de la costa de Granada (Mar de Alborán). Zool Baetica 11:51–65Google Scholar
  138. Ocaña O, López-González PJ, Núñez J, et al (2000b) A survey of the genera Sarcodictyon Forbes, 1847, and Rolandia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1900 (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) in the North-Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Zool Meded, Leiden 73:413–426Google Scholar
  139. Ocaña O, Opresko DM, Brito A (2007) First record of the black coral Antipathella wollastoni (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) outside of Macaronesian waters. Rev Acad Canar Cienc 18:125–138Google Scholar
  140. OCEANA (2014) Informe de síntesis para proceder a la elaboración del borrador del Plan de Gestión del LIC “Sur de Almería-Seco de los Olivos”: Seco de los Olivos. Proyecto LIFE + INDEMARES (LIFE07/NAT/E/00732). OCEANA–Instituto Español de Oceanografía, MadridGoogle Scholar
  141. Opresko D (1974) A study of the classification of the Antipatharia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa), with redescriptions of eleven species. Dissertation, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
  142. Opresko D (2001) Revision of the Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Part I. Establishment of a new family, Myriopathidae. Zool Meded Leiden 75:147–174Google Scholar
  143. Opresko D (2002) Revision of the Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Part II Schizopathidae Zool Meded Leiden 76:411–442Google Scholar
  144. Opresko D (2003) Redescription of Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia). Zool Meded Leiden 77:481–493Google Scholar
  145. Opresko D, Baron-Szabo R (2001) Re-descriptions of the antipatharian corals described by E.J.C. Esper with selected English translations of the original German text (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Antipatharia). Senckenb Biol 81:1–2Google Scholar
  146. Opresko D, Försterra G (2003) Ordnung Antipatharia. In: Hofrichter R (ed) Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, II/1. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 506–509Google Scholar
  147. Opresko D, Tracey D, Mackay E (2014) Antipatharia (black corals) for the New Zealand region. N Z Aquat Environ Biodivers Rep 131:1–20Google Scholar
  148. Orejas C, Gori A, Lo Iacono C, et al (2009) Cold-water corals in the Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean: spatial distribution, density and anthropogenic impact. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 397:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Orejas C, Gori A, Jiménez C, et al (2017) First in situ documentation of a population of the coral Dendrophyllia ramea off Cyprus (Levantine Sea) and evidence of human impacts. Galaxea J Coral Reef Stud 19:15–16Google Scholar
  150. Otero MM, Numa C, Bo M, et al (2017) Overview of the conservation status of Mediterranean anthozoans. In: IUCN. Málaga, Spain, 73 pGoogle Scholar
  151. Pardo E, Aguilar R, García S, et al (2011) Documentación de arrecifes de corales de agua fría en el Mediterráneo occidental (Mar de Alborán). Chronica Nat 1:20–34Google Scholar
  152. Pax F, Müller I (1962) Die Anthozoen fauna der Adria. Fauna Flora Adriat 3:1–343Google Scholar
  153. Pérès JM, Picard J (1964) Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Méditerranée. Recl Trav Stn Mar Endoume 47:3–137Google Scholar
  154. Pérez CD, de Moura Neves B, Cordeiro RT, et al (2016) Diversity and distribution of Octocorallia. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Cnidaria, past, present and future. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Poliseno A, Altuna A, Cerrano C, et al (2017) Historical biogeography and mitogenomics of two endemic Mediterranean gorgonians (Holaxonia, Plexauridae). Org Divers Evol 17:365–373.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-017-0322-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pratlong M, Haguenauer A, Chabrol O (2015) The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies. Mol Ecol Resour 15:1205–1215PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Ramirez-Llodra E, Brandt A, Danovaro R, et al (2010) Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world’s largest ecosystem. Biogeosciences 7:2851–2899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Reimer JD, Sinniger F, Hickman CP Jr (2008) Zoanthid diversity (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Galapagos Islands: a molecular examination. Coral Reefs 27:641–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Risi MM, Macdonald AHH (2015) Possible synonymies of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) species on the east coast of South Africa with Pacific congeners. Syst Biodivers 13:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Roberts JM, Cairns SD (2014) Cold water corals in a changing ocean. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 7:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Roberts JM, Wheeler A, Freiwald A (2006) Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystem. Science 312:543–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Roberts JM, Wheeler A, Freiwald A, et al (2009) Cold-water corals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, p 334Google Scholar
  163. Roche J, Tixier-Durivault A (1951) Rapports des Gerardiides avec les Zoanthides et les Antipathaires. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris 23:402–409Google Scholar
  164. Rogers AD (1999) The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. Int Rev Hydrobiol 84:315–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Romano SL, Cairns SD (2000) Molecular hypotheses for the evolution of scleractinian corals. Bull Mar Sci 67:1043–1068Google Scholar
  166. Salvati E, Angiolillo M, Bo M, et al (2010) The population of Errina aspera (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) of the Messina Strait (Mediterranean Sea). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 90:1331–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sardà F, Calafat A, Flexas MM, et al (2004) An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology. Sci Mar 68:7–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sartoretto S (2012) New records of Dendrobrachia bonsai (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea: Dendrobrachiidae) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biodivers Rec 5:e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Saucier EH, Sajjadi A, France SC (2017) A taxonomic review of the genus Acanella (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Isididae) in the North Atlantic Ocean, with descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa 4323:359–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schuchert P (1993) Phylogenetic analysis of the Cnidaria. Z Zool Syst Evol Forsch 31:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sinniger F, Häussermann V (2009) Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from shallow waters of the southern Chilean fjord region, with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Org Divers Evol 9:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sinniger F, Pawlowski J (2009) The partial mitochondrial genome of Leiopathes glaberrima (Hexacorallia: Antipatharia) and the first report of the presence of an intron in COI in black corals. Galaxea J Coral Reef Stud 11:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sinniger F, Chevaldonné P, Pawlowski J (2007) Mitochondrial genome of Savalia savaglia (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) and early metazoan phylogeny. J Mol Evol 64:196–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Sinniger F, Reimer JD, Pawlowski J (2008) Potential of DNA sequences to identify zoanthids (Cnidaria: Zoantharia). Zool Sci 25:1253–1260PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Sinniger F, Reimer JD, Pawlowski J (2010) The Parazoanthidae (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) DNA taxonomy: description of two new genera. Mar Biol 40:57–70Google Scholar
  176. Sinniger F, Ocaña OV, Baco AR (2013) Diversity of zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids. PLoS One 8:e52607.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052607 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Stolarski J (2000) Origin and phylogeny of Guyniidae (Scleractinia) in the light of microstructural data. Lethaia 33:13–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stolarski J, Roniewicz E (2001) Towards a new synthesis of evolutionary relationships and classification of Scleractinia. J Palaeont 75:1090–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Taviani M (2002) The Mediterranean benthos from Late Miocene up to present: ten million years of dramatic climatic and geological vicissitudes. Biol Mar Mediterr 9:445–463Google Scholar
  180. Taviani M, Freiwald A, Zibrowius H (2005) Deep coral growth in the Mediterranean Sea: an overview. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  181. Taviani M, Vertino A, López Correa M, et al (2011) Pleistocene to recent scleractinian deep-water corals and coral facies in the Eastern Mediterranean. Facies 57:579–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Terrón-Sigler A, López-González PJ (2005) Cnidae variability in Balanophyllia europaea and B. regia (Scleractinia: Dendrophylliidae) in the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 69:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Thomson JA (1927) Alcyonaires provenant des campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert Ier de Monaco. Rés Camp Sci Monaco 73:1–77Google Scholar
  184. Thomson JA (1929) Alcyonaires des environs de Monaco et de localités diverses. Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 534:1–10Google Scholar
  185. Topçu EN, Öztürk B (2015) Composition and abundance of octocorals in the Sea of Marmara, where the Mediterranean meets the Black Sea. Sci Mar 79:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tsounis G, Rossi S, Grigg R, et al (2010) The exploitation and conservation of precious corals, vol 48. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  187. Uda K, Komeda Y, Fujita T, et al (2013) Complete mitochondrial genomes of the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) and the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum): a reevaluation of the phylogeny of the family Coralliidae based on molecular data. Comp Biochem Physiol D-Genomics Proteomics 8:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Vafidis D (2010) Anthozoans (Table S13). In: Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J et al. (eds) The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS One 5:e11842.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011842 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Vafidis D, Koukouras A, Voultsiadou-Koukoura E (1994) Octocoral fauna of the Aegean Sea with a check list of the Mediterranean species: new information, faunal comparisons. Ann Inst Océanogr, Paris 70:217–229Google Scholar
  190. Valente M, Maltagliati F, Cupido R, et al (2010) Absence of genetic structure in the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) from the NW Mediterranean, as inferred by the COI gene. Biol Mar Mediterr 17:78–79Google Scholar
  191. Van der Ham JL, Brugler MR, France SC (2009) Exploring the utility of an indel-rich, mitochondrial intergenic region as a molecular barcode for bamboo corals (Octocorallia: Isididae). Mar Genomics 2:183–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Vaughan TW, Wells JW (1943) Revision of the suborders, families, and genera of the Scleractinia. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 44:1–361Google Scholar
  193. Verseveldt J (1964) Notes on Mediterranean Alcyonium species (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Zool Meded, Leiden 39:153–167Google Scholar
  194. Vertino A, Zibrowius H, Rocca M, et al (2010) Fossil Corallidae in the Mediterranean basin. NOAA Tech Memo CRCP 13:94–98Google Scholar
  195. Vertino A, Stolarski J, Bosellini FR, et al (2014) Mediterranean corals through time: from Miocene to present. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds) The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. von Koch G (1889) Die Antipathiden des Golfes von Neapel. Mitt Zool Stat Neapel 9:187–204Google Scholar
  197. von Koch G (1891) Die Alcyonacea des Golfes von Neapel. Mitt Zool Stat Neapel 9:652–676Google Scholar
  198. Wagner D, Luck DG, Toonen RJ (2012) The biology and ecology of black corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia). Adv Mar Biol 63:67–132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Weinberg S (1975) Contribution à la connaissance de Parerythropodium coralloides (Pallas) (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). Beaufortia 23:53–73Google Scholar
  200. Weinberg S (1976) Revision of the common Octocorallia of the Mediterranean circalittoral. 1. Gorgonacea. Beaufortia 24:63–104Google Scholar
  201. Weinberg S (1977) Revision of the common Octocorallia of the Mediterranean circalittoral. 2. Alcyonacea. Beaufortia 25:131–166Google Scholar
  202. Weinberg S (1978) Revision of the common Octocorallia of the Mediterranean circalittoral. 3. Stolonifera. Beaufortia 27:139–176Google Scholar
  203. Weinberg S (1986) Mediterranean Octocorallia: description of Clavularia carpediem n. sp. and synonymy of Clavularia crassa and C. ochracea, on etho-ecological grounds. Bijdr Dierk 56:232–246Google Scholar
  204. Weinberg S, Grasshoff M (2003) Gorgonien. In: Hofrichter R (ed) Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, II/1. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 428–443Google Scholar
  205. Weinberg S, Ocaña O (2003) Unterklasse Octocorallia Haeckel, 1866. In: Hofrichter R (ed) Das Mittelmeer. Fauna, Flora, Ökologie, II/1. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 412–414Google Scholar
  206. Wells JW (1956) Scleractinia. In: Moore RC (ed), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Pt F (Coelenterata). The University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp F328–F444Google Scholar
  207. Williams GC (1995) Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses. Zool J Linnean Soc 113:93–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Williams GC (1999) Index Pennatulacea. Annotated bibliography and indexes of the sea pens of the world 1469–1999. Proc Calif Acad Sci 51:19–103Google Scholar
  209. Williams GC (2011) The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). PLoS One 6:e22747.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone0022747 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Willison JHM, Hall J, Gass SE, et al (2001) Proceedings of the first international symposium on deep-sea corals. Ecology Action Center, HalifaxGoogle Scholar
  211. Wirshing HH, Messing CG, Douady CJ, et al (2005) Molecular evidence for multiple lineages in the gorgonian family Plexauridae (Anthozoa: Octocorallia). Mar Biol 147:497–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wright EP, Kemp K, Rogers AD, et al (2014) Genetic structure of the tall sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis in NW Scottish sea lochs. Mar Ecol 36:659–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. WWF/IUCN (2004) The Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems: an overview of their diversity, structure, functioning and anthropogenic impacts, with a proposal for conservation. IUCN, Málaga and WWF, Rome, 65 ppGoogle Scholar
  214. Yesson C, Taylor ML, Tittensor DP, et al (2012) Global habitat suitability of cold-water octocorals. J Biogeogr 39:1278–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Zapata F, Goetz FE, Smith SA, et al (2015) Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria. PLoS One 10(10):e0139068.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139068 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Zibrowius H (1980) Les Scléractiniaires de la Méditerranée et de l’Atlantique nord-oriental. Mém Inst Océanogr, Monaco 11:1–107Google Scholar
  217. Zibrowius H (1984) Taxonomy in ahermatypic scleractinian corals. Palaeontogr Am 54:80–85Google Scholar
  218. Zibrowius H (1985a) Gerardia savaglia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoantharia) nouvel hôte de Balssia gasti (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae). Rapp P-V Réun Comm Int Explor Sci Mer Méditerr 29:349–350Google Scholar
  219. Zibrowius H (1985b) Comportement agressif du Zoanthaire Geradia savaglia contre le Gorgonaire Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Rapp P-V Réun. Comm Int Explor Sci Mer Méditerr 29:351–353Google Scholar
  220. Zibrowius H (2003) The “white coral community”, canyon and seamount faunas of the deep Mediterranan Sea. RAC/SPA – Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, TunisGoogle Scholar
  221. Zibrowius H, Cairns SD (1992) Revision of the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat, Paris, (A) 153:1–136Google Scholar
  222. Zibrowius H, Placella B (1982) First record of the genus Fungiacyathus (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from the Mediterranean area: Pliocene of Masseria Concarone (NT.), southern Italy. Boll Soc Paleontol Ital 20:143–146Google Scholar

Cross References

  1. Addamo AM (this volume) Desmophyllum dianthus genetics and moreGoogle Scholar
  2. Bo M, Bavestrello G (this volume) Mediterranean black coral communitiesGoogle Scholar
  3. Boavida J, Becheler R, Addamo A, et al (this volume) Past, present and future connectivity of Mediterranean cold-water corals: patterns, drivers and fate in a technically and environmentally changing worldGoogle Scholar
  4. Bramanti L, Santangelo G, Benedetti MC, et al (this volume) Demography and conservation of deep corals: the study of population structure and dynamicsGoogle Scholar
  5. Chimienti G, Bo M, Taviani M, et al (this volume) Occurrence and biogeography of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Onghia G (this volume) Cold-water coral as shelter, feeding and life-history critical habitats for fish species: ecological interactions and fishing impactGoogle Scholar
  7. Fourt M, Goujard A, Chevaldonné P (this volume) Working with visual methods, comparison among the French deep-sea canyonsGoogle Scholar
  8. Gori A, Grinyó J, Dominguez-Carrió C, et al (this volume) Gorgonian and black coral assemblages in deep coastal bottoms and continental shelves of the Mediterranean SeaGoogle Scholar
  9. Lartaud F, Mouchi V, Chapron L, et al (this volume) Growth patterns of Mediterranean calcifying cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  10. Otero M, Marin P (this volume) Conservation of cold-water corals in the Mediterranean: current status and future prospects for improvementGoogle Scholar
  11. Rueda JL, Urra J, Aguilar R, et al (this volume) Cold-water coral associated fauna in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent areasGoogle Scholar
  12. Taviani M, Vertino A, Angeletti L, et al (this volume) Paleoecology of Mediterranean cold-water coralsGoogle Scholar
  13. Vertino A, Corselli C (this volume) Did Quaternary climate fluctuations affect Mediterranean deep-sea coral communities?Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INSUBSan SebastiánSpain
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Palaeontology & GeobiologyLudwig Maximilians Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations