The Role of Culture in Internationalization

  • Adriana Calvelli
  • Chiara Cannavale


While internationalizing, firms face a high level of uncertainty, connected to the a lack of knowledge of the foreign market, and to the “soft factors,” which can reduce profitability and create a situation of disadvantage with regard to local or already embedded competitors. The chapter offers a key to understand the importance of market and cultural knowledge, and it explains why firms should the necessity to have culturally competent managers in order to lead international teams, and to adapt products and processes, as well as managerial practices to different markets. The content is based on a post-modern explorative approach aimed at interpreting the knowledge of local culture and values as a key to understand distant markets.


Cultural competence Cultural knowledge Interculturality National culture Entrepreneurial systems 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Calvelli
    • 1
  • Chiara Cannavale
    • 1
  1. 1.Parthenope University of NaplesNapoliItaly

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