• Jens HasskarlEmail author
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 211)


Everolimus (RAD001) is an oral protein kinase inhibitor of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) serine/threonine kinase signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival, and is frequently deregulated in cancer.

The EMA has approved Everolimus as Afinitor®
  • for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2/neu-negative advanced breast cancer, in combination with exemestane, in postmenopausal women without symptomatic visceral disease after recurrence or progression following a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor,

  • for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, well- or moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin in adults with progressive disease, and

  • for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, well-differentiated (Grade 1 or Grade 2) nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal or lung origin in adults with progressive disease, and

  • for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, whose disease has progressed on or after treatment with VEGF-targeted therapy

And as Votubia®
  • for the treatment of adult patients with renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), who are at risk of complications (based on factors such as tumor size or presence of aneurysm, or presence of multiple or bilateral tumors) but who do not require immediate surgery, and

  • for the treatment of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with TSC who require therapeutic intervention but are not amenable to surgery, and

  • as an add-on treatment in patients from 2 years of age with seizures related to TSC that have not responded to other treatments (

The FDA has approved Everolimus as Afinitor®
  • for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in combination with exemestane, after the failure of treatment with letrozole or anastrozole,

  • for the treatment of adult patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin (PNET) with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease,

  • for the treatment of adult patients with advanced RCC after failure of treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib,

  • for the treatment of adult patients with renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), not requiring immediate surgery.

  • for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients, 3 years of age or older, with SEGA associated with TSC who require therapeutic intervention but are not candidates for curative surgical resection.

Everolimus shows promising clinical activity in additional indications. Multiple Phase II and Phase III trials of everolimus alone or in combination and will help to further elucidate the role of mTOR in oncology. For a review on everolimus as immunosuppressant, please consult other sources.


RAD001 mTOR Everolimus TSC Cancer NET 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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