Advertisement

Abstract

Ears are important organs considering facial aesthetics and auditory function. Anthropometric data of ears can help in understanding the morphology, which can further be applied in medical and ergonomic research. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variation of four selected ear dimensions along with other parameters such as gender, age and ear symmetry with the use of 3D scanned data. Sixty Chinese children (30 males and 30 females) aged 5 to 13 years were invited for the study. They were divided into three groups based on the age. Four dimensions (ear length, ear width, width from tragus to antihelix, and flipping angle from the base of the head to the helix) were measured for both ears from the point clouds data acquired from the 3D scans. Statistical analyses were performed to measure the growth and characteristics of ears’ morphology. These results provide a better understanding of variation in ear morphology based on different demographic parameters. In addition, this research would assist in providing some basic 3D anthropometric data of ears for Chinese children, which can be helpful in deciding sizing, and grading parameters of ear related products for children.

Keywords

Growth study Ear morphology 3D scanning Anthropometry Ergonomics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research is funded by Hong Kong RGC/GRF project B-Q57F and Departmental General Research Fund of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

References

  1. 1.
    Kalcioglu, M.T., Miman, M.C., Toplu, Y., Yakinci, C., Ozturan, O.: Anthropometric growth study of normal human auricle. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 67(11), 1169–1177 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farkas, L.G., Posnick, J.C., Hreczko, T.M.: Anthropometric growth study of the ear. Cleft Palate-Craniofac. J. 29(4), 324–329 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sforza, C., Grandi, G., Binelli, M., Tommasi, D.G., Rosati, R., Ferrario, V.F.: Age-and sex-related changes in the normal human ear. Forensic Sci. Int. 187(1), 110.e1–110.e7 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Igarashi, M., Kajii, T.: Normal values for physical parameters of the head, face and hand in Japanese children. J. Hum. Genet. 33(1), 9–31 (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leung, S.S.F., Lau, J.T.F., Xu, Y.Y., Tse, L.Y., Huen, K.F., Wong, G.W.K., Law, W.Y., Yeung, V.T.F., Yeung, W.K.Y., Leung, N.K.: Secular changes in standing height, sitting height and sexual maturation of Chinese—the Hong Kong growth study, 1993. Ann. Hum. Biol. 23(4), 297–306 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leung, S.S., Cole, T.J., Tse, L.Y., Lau, J.T.F.: Body mass index reference curves for Chinese children. Ann. Hum. Biol. 25(2), 169–174 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, H., Ji, C.Y., Zong, X.N., Zhang, Y.Q.: Height and weight standardized growth charts for Chinese children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years. Chin. J. Pediatr. 47(7), 487–492 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumar, B.S., Selvi, G.P.: Morphometry of ear pinna in sex determination. Int. J. Anat. Res. 4(2), 2480–2484 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu, B.S.: Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products. App. Ergon. 39(1), 115–121 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, B.S., Tseng, H.Y., Chia, T.C.: Reliability of external ear measurements obtained by direct, photocopier scanning and photo anthropometry. Ind. Eng. Manag. Syst. 9(1), 20–27 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alvord, L.S., Farmer, B.L.: Anatomy and orientation of the human external ear. J.-Am. Acad. Audiol. 8, 383–390 (1997)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luximon, Y., Ball, R., Justice, L.: The 3D Chinese head and face modeling. Comput.-Aided Des. 44(1), 40–47 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zheng, R., Yu, W., Fan, J.: Development of a new Chinese bra sizing system based on breast anthropometric measurements. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 37(8), 697–705 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shah, Parth B., Luximon, Yan: Review on 3D scanners for head and face modeling. In: Duffy, Vincent G. (ed.) DHM 2017. LNCS, vol. 10286, pp. 47–56. Springer, Cham (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58463-8_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaushal, N., Kaushal, P.: Human earprints: a review. J. Biom. Biostat. 2(129) (2011). https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6180.1000129
  16. 16.
    Azouz, Z.B., Rioux, M., Shu, C., Lepage, R.: Characterizing human shape variation using 3D anthropometric data. Vis. Comput. 22(5), 302–314 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luximon, Y., Martin, N.J., Ball, R., Zhang, M.: Merging the point clouds of the head and ear by using the iterative closest point method. Int. J. Dig. Hum. 1(3), 305–317 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee, W., Jung, H., Bok, I., Kim, C., Kwon, O., Choi, T., You, H.: Measurement and application of 3D ear images for earphone design. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 60, pp. 1053–1057. SAGE Publications, Los Angeles (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barut, C., Aktunc, E.: Anthropometric measurements of the external ear in a group of Turkish primary school students. Aesthet. Plast. Surg. 30(2), 255–259 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ferrario, V.F., Sforza, C., Ciusa, V., Serrao, G., Tartaglia, G.M.: Morphometry of the normal human ear: a cross-sectional study from adolescence to mid-adulthood. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. 19(4), 226–233 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of DesignThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong SAR

Personalised recommendations