Advertisement

Cerebral Ischemia and Stroke

  • Fridon Todua
  • Dudana Gachechiladze
Chapter

Abstract

Brain damage caused by a pathology in vascular system is currently one of the major problems in medicine even in the highly developed countries. Epidemiological studies have proved that 750,000 new cases of stroke are annually registered in the USA, 127,000 in Germany, 112,000 in Italy, 101,000 in England, and 78,000 in France (Ricci 1989, American Heart Association 1997; Argentine and Prencipe 2000). Approximately 4.5 million people all over the world annually die from stroke. Cerebrovascular disorders are the reason of 11–14% of overall mortality and according to this parameter hold the third place in a number of countries with developed economy and the first place according to the reason of disability (World Health Organization 2014; American Heart Association 2016).
  1. 1.

    Epidemiological studies showed the differences in geographical spread of stroke. In the developed countries of Asia, the frequency of stroke is higher than in west Europe. In urban population of Europe, 1.26–1.7 cases of stroke are registered per 1000 people (Smirnov and Manvelov 2001; Kim and Johnston 2013), while in Japan and China, this value is 3.53–4.9 (Nakagawa et al. 1989; Shimamura et al. 1996; Eastern Stroke and Coronary Heart Colaborative Researc Group 1998; Yamaguchi 2003).

     

References

  1. Abbott RD et al (1986) Risk of stroke in male cigarette smokers. N Engl J Med 315(12):717–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Heart Association (1997) Heart and stroke statistics: 1997 statistical supplements. American Heart Association, DallasGoogle Scholar
  3. American Heart Association (2009) Heart disease and stroke statistics—2009 update. A report from the Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 119:e21–e181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American heart Association (2016) Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 133:e38–e360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Argentine C, Prencipe M (2000) The burden of stroke: a need for prevention. In: Fieschi C, Fisher M (eds) Prevention of ischemic stroke. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  6. Bamford JM, Warlow CP (1988) Evolution and testing of the lacunar hypothesis. Stroke 19(9):1074–1082Google Scholar
  7. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C (1991) Classification, and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction. Lancet. 337:1521–1526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumbach GL, Heistad DD (1988) Cerebral circulation in chronic arterial hypertension. Hypertension 12:89–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumbach GL, Hestend BD (1991) Adaptive changes in cerebral blood vessels during chronic hypertension. J Hypert 9:987–991Google Scholar
  10. Baumbach GL, Siles I et al (1991) Effect of reduction in pressure on distensibility of cerebral arteries. Corc Res 68:338–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogouslavsky J (1996) Binswanger’s disease: does it exist? Cerebrovasc Dis 6:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bogouslavsky J, Reyli F (1984) Cerebral infarction with transient signs: do TIA correspond to small infarcts in internal carotid artery occlusion. Stroke 15:536–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boitem J, Lodder J (1991) Lacunar infarcts pathogenesis and validity of the clinical symptoms. Stroke 22:1374–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boitem J, Rothwell P, Slaterry J, Ischemic Lacunar Stroke in the European Carotid Surgery Trial et al (1996) Risk factors, distribution of carotid stenosis. Effect of surgery and type of recurrent stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 6:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonita R, Salonen N, Broad JB (1997) Prevalence of stroke and stroke-related disability. Estimates from the Auckland Stroke Studies. Stroke 28:1898–1902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bots J, Looman S et al (1996) Prevalence of stroke in the general population. The Rotterdam Study. Stroke 27:1499–1501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burcfiel CM, Curb JD, Rodriguez BL et al (1995) Glucose intolerance and 22-year stroke incidence: the Honolulu Heart Program. Stroke 25:951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burtsev E (1998) Discirculatory (vascular) encephalopathy. J Neurol Psychopathol 1:45–48Google Scholar
  19. Camargo EC, Furie KL, Singhal AB et al (2007) Acute brain infarct: detection and delineation with CT angiographic source images versus nonenhanced CT scans. Radiology 244(2):541–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caplan L (2011) Stroke classification. A personal view. Stroke 42(suppl 1):S3–S6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caplan LN, Tettenborn B (1992) Vertebrobasilar occlusive disease: review of selected aspects. Cerebrovasc Dis 2:320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cardiogenic Brain Embolism (1989) The second report of the Cerebral Embolism Task Force. Arch Neurol 46:727–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen R, Ovbiagele B, Feng W (2016) Diabetes and stroke: epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmaceuticals and outcomes. Am J Med Sci 351(4):380–386CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Ciervo CA et al (2012) Stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: disease burden and unmet medical needs. J Am Osteopath Assoc 112(9 suppl 2):eS2–eS8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Collaboration TERF (2010) Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet 375:2215–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Department of Health National Audit Office (2010) Progress in improving stroke care. The Stationary Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Derdeyn CP, Kosta F (2001) Severe hemodynamic impairment and border-zone infarction. Radiology 220:195–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Di Tullio M, Sacco RL, Gopal A, Mohr JP, Homma S (1992) Patent foramen ovale as a risk factor for cryptogenic stroke. Ann Intern Med 117:461–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Comstock GM et al (1995) The relationship of active and passive smoking to carotid atherosclerosis 12-14 year later. Prev Med 24(1):48–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Donnan GA, Norrving B, Bamford JM, Bogousslavsky J (1993) Subcortical infarction: classification and terminology. Cerebrovasc Dis 3:248–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eastern Stroke and Coronary Heart Colaborative Researc Group (1998) Blood pressure, cholesterol, and stroke in Eastern Asia. Lancet 352:1801–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Efimov A (1989) Diabetic angiopathy. Mosc Med 1989:212Google Scholar
  33. Fazekas F, Kleinert R, Offenbacher H et al (1993) Pathologic correlates of incidental MRI white matter signal hyperintensities. Neurology 43(9):1683–1689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fisher CM (1989) Binswanger’s encephalopathy: a review. J Neurol 236:236–265Google Scholar
  35. Fisher CM (1991) Lacunar infarcts–a review. Cerebrovasc Dis 1:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forbes JF (1993) Cost of stroke. Scott Med J 38(suppl):S1–S4Google Scholar
  37. Fritass G, Boguslavskaya A (2001) Primary prophilaxis of stroke. Insult 1:7–19Google Scholar
  38. Fleur van Raamt A, Appelman A, Maili W et al (2007) Arterial blood flow to the brain in patients with vascular diseases. Radiology 243:198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gachechiladze D (2005) Brain haemodynamic changes in atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension patients. Assay of Doctoral Sci. Degree. TbilisiGoogle Scholar
  40. Go AS et al (2013) Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 127:e6–e245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenwald B, Kramer-Gionsberg E et al (1998) Neuroanatomic localization of magnetic resonance imaging signal hyperintensities in geriatric depression. Stroke 29:613–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Guermazi A, Miaux Y, Rovira-Cañellas A, Suhy J, Pauls J, Lopez R et al (2007) Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia. Neuroradiology 49:1–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hachinsky V (2003) The role of the stroke neurologist: past, present, future. Insult 9:30–35Google Scholar
  44. Hachinsky VC, Potter P, Merskey H (1987) Leuko-araiosis. Arch Neurol 44:21–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jibladze N, Kugoev D, Lagoda O (1997) Atherosclerotic changes of the internal carotid artery in the pathogenesis of “silent” brain infarction. Angiol Vasc Surg 3:47–55Google Scholar
  46. Kalashnikova L (1988) Cerebral lacunar infarction (review). Zhurnal nevr i psikhiatrii (J Nevr I Psich) 88:131–140Google Scholar
  47. Kim AS, Johnston SC (2013) Temporal and geographic trends in global stroke epidemic. Stroke 44(6 Suppl 1):S123–S125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kittner SJ, Sharkness CM, Sloan MA, Price TR, Dambrosia JM, Tuhrim S et al (1992) Infarcts with a cardiac source of embolism in the NINDS stroke data bank: neurologic examination. Neurology 42:299–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kluytmans M, van der Grong et al (1999) Cerebral hemodynamics in relation to patterns of collateral flow. Stroke 30:14329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lassila HC, Tyrell K, Matthewes KA, Wolfson S, Kuller L (1997) Prevalence and determination of carotid atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Stroke 28(3):513–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Feigin VL, Rodgers A (2004) Blood pressure and stroke. An overview of published reviews. Stroke 35:1024–1033Google Scholar
  52. Lindgren A et al (1994) Comparison of clinical and neuroradiological findings in first ever stroke: a population-based study. Stroke 25:1371–1377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Leary MC, Caplan LR (2007) Cerebrovascular disease and neurologic manifestations of heart disease. In: Fuster V, Alexander RW, O’Rourke RA, Roberts R, King et al (eds) Hurst’s the heart, 12th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Nakagawa H, Tabata M, Marikawa J, et al. International Stroke Congress, Kyoto. 1989. p. 3–6.Google Scholar
  55. O’Donnell MJ, Chin SL, Rangarajan S, Xavier D, Liu L, Zhang H et al (2016) Global and regional effects of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE): a case-control study. Lancet 388:761–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Oliveira TV, Gorz AM, Bittencourt R (1988) Diabetes mellitus cono factor prognostivo em donca cerebrovascular ischemia. Arg Neuropept 46(3):287–291Google Scholar
  57. Pantoni L, Garcia J (1995) The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report. Stroke 26:1293–1301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Petty GW, Khanderia BK, Chu CP, Sicks JD, Whisnant JP (1997) Patent foramen ovale in patients with cerebral infarction: a transesophageal echocardiographic study. Arch Neurol 54:819–822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ricci S, Celani M, Guercini G et al (1989) First-year result of a community-based study of stroke incidence in Umbria, Italy. Stroke 20(7):853–857CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Roman GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T, Cummings JL, Masdeu JC, Garcia JH et al (1993) Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 43:250–256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Saremi F, Emmanuel N, Wu P et al (2014) Paradoxical embolism: role of imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning. Radiography 34:6Google Scholar
  62. Schramm P, Schellinger PD, Fiebach JB et al (2002) Comparison of CT and CT angiography source images with diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with acute stroke within 6 hours after onset. Stroke 33(10):2426–2432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shah RS, Cole JW (2010) Smoking and stroke: the more you smoke the more you stroke. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 8(7):917–932CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Shakarashvili R, Mchedlishvili G (2003) Cerebral discirculation: pathogenetic and compensatory mechanisms. Cardiol Int Med 3:4–43Google Scholar
  65. Shimamura O, Tsuda H et al (1996) Stroke in Kyoto Prefecture Japan, 1989 through 1995. Cerebrovasc Dis 6(suppl 2):32–178Google Scholar
  66. Sinivasan A, Goyal M, Al Azri F, Lum C (2006) State-of art imaging of acute stroke. RadioGraphics 26:S75–S95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smirnov V, Manvelov L (2001) Stroke risk factors and mortality in different regions of the world. Insult 2:19–25Google Scholar
  68. The Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (2010) Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 31:2369–2429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thurnher MM, Castilo M (2005) Imaging of acute stroke. Eur Radiol 15:408–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Todua F, Gachechiladze D (2012) Brain structural-hemodynamic changes in patients with potential Cardiac Source of embolism. Bull Georg Natl Acad Sci 6(2):145–152Google Scholar
  71. Todua F, Gachechiladze D, Akhvlediani M (2004) The status of carotid arteries and the main vascular risk factors in cerebral infarctions of anterior circulation. Angiol Vasc Surg 10(1):70–75Google Scholar
  72. Todua F, Gachechiladze D, Beraia M (2012) Cerebral blood flow velocity and main risk-factor profile in patients with leukoaraiosis. Med Vizualiz 2:10–17Google Scholar
  73. Tsiskaridze AL (2011) Epidemiology of stroke in Georgia. J Rentg Radiol 2:23–28Google Scholar
  74. U-King-Im JM, Koo B, Trivedi RI et al (2005) Current diagnostic approaches to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eur Radiol 15:1135–1147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Van der Zwan A, Hillen B et al (1992) Variability of the territories of the major cerebral arteries. J Neurosurg 77:927–940CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Vereshagin N, Morgunov V, Gulevskaia T (1997) Brain changes in atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. Moscow Med: 288Google Scholar
  77. Wardlow JM et al (1991) The validity of simple clinical classification of acute stroke. J Neurol 243:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Warlow C et al (1998) Stroke- a practical guide of management. Wiley, Hoboken, p. 672Google Scholar
  79. Warlow C, Gijn JV, Dennis M et al (2008) Stroke practical management, 3rd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, p 260Google Scholar
  80. Wilkinson P, Ruld T, Stewart J (1996) A five year follow-up study of a population cohort of stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis 6(suppl 2):53Google Scholar
  81. Wityk R (2000) Diagnostic evaluation of stroke. Neurol Clin 18(2):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. World Health Organization. The top 10 causes of death; 2014.Google Scholar
  83. Yamaguchi T (2003) Present status of acute stroke in Japan: results of nation-wide hospital survey 1999-2000. Insult 9:72–74Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fridon Todua
    • 1
  • Dudana Gachechiladze
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNational Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, I. Javakhishili Tbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyProgramme of Caucasus UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsNational Medical Academy of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical MedicineTbilisiGeorgia

Personalised recommendations