Detection of Cerebral Microemboli

  • Fridon Todua
  • Dudana Gachechiladze


Because cerebral embolism from arterial and cardiac sources may account for as many as 30–60% of all strokes, the detection of microemboli could be of great importance for the identification of patients who are at high risk for cerebral embolism (Siebler et al. 1994a; American Heart Association 2016; Siebler et al. 1995; Cerebral Embolism Task Force 1989).


  1. American Heart Association (2016) Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 133:e38–e360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cerebral Embolism Task Force (1989) Cardiogenic brain embolism: the second report of the Cerebral Embolism Task Force. Arch Neurol 46:727–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Doufekias E, Segal A, Kizer J et al (2008) Cardiogenic and Aortogenic brain embolism. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:1049–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gao S, Wong KS, Hansberg T, Lam WW, Droste DW, Ringelstein EB (2004) Microembolic signal predicts recurrent cerebral ischemic events in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis. Stroke 35:2832–2836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Mackinnon AD, Aaslid R, Markus HS (2004) Long-term ambulatory monitoring for cerebral emboli using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Stroke 35:73–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Siebler M et al (1994a) Anticoagulation monitoring and cerebral microembolic detection. Lancet 344:535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Siebler M, Kleinschmidt A et al (1994b) Cerebral microembolism in asymptomatic and symptomatic high-grade internal carotid stenosis. Neurology 44:615–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Siebler M, Nachtmann A, Sitzer M et al (1995) Cerebral microembolism and the risk of ischemia in asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 26:2184–2186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Spencer MP, Thomas GI, Nicholls SC et al (1990) Detection of middle cerebral artery emboli during carotid endarterectomy using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Stroke 21:415–423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fridon Todua
    • 1
  • Dudana Gachechiladze
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNational Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, I. Javakhishili Tbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyProgramme of Caucasus UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsNational Medical Academy of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical MedicineTbilisiGeorgia

Personalised recommendations