Congenital Variations of Extracranial Arteries

  • Fridon Todua
  • Dudana Gachechiladze


Congenital variations of extracranial arteries include fenestration and duplication, variations in the caliber (reduction of sizes, hypoplasia, and widening, dilation). Apart of that, quite a rare anomaly is aplasia. Abnormal course of arteries includes non-typical outcome from magistral trunks and abnormal locations.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fridon Todua
    • 1
  • Dudana Gachechiladze
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNational Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, I. Javakhishili Tbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyProgramme of Caucasus UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsNational Medical Academy of Georgia, Research Institute of Clinical MedicineTbilisiGeorgia

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