Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones essential for various growth processes in plants, such as seed germination, stem elongation, and the regulation of flower, fruit, and seed development. GA signaling is mediated by three components, a nuclear receptor GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), a DELLA protein, which negatively regulates GA responses, and SLEEPY1/GID2, a GA-specific F-box protein. Upon GA binding to GID1, GID1 is able to interact with DELLA, allowing further interactions with SLEEPY1/GID2 F-box proteins. The DELLA protein is polyubiquitinated by the SKP1–CULLIN–F-box ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and, finally, is degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. This GID1–DELLA GA-perception system is conserved among vascular plants but is not found in moss. This chapter reviews the structure-based GA-recognition mechanism of GID1, which resembles that of hormone-sensitive lipases, and GID1–GA–DELLA protein complex formation. Additionally, we refer to plant evolutions’ role in GA perception and summarize the current understanding of DELLA functions.
This work was supported by a Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 3806) and a MEXT KAKENHI Grant (16H04907). The authors declare that they do not have any competing financial interests.
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