Conceptualizing Early Schooling in Pakistan: Perspectives from Teachers and Parents

  • Sadaf Shallwani
Part of the Palgrave Studies on Children and Development book series (PSCD)


Education has a long history and valued place in Pakistani society. From the earliest recorded history, teachers and schools, along with families and the broader community, have played fundamental roles in children’s learning as well as the development of their character (Gupta, Introduction: culture, curriculum, and points of intersection. In: Gupta A (ed) Going to school in South Asia. Greenwood, Westport, 2007a). However, the current public school system, shaped by a fairly recent colonial history, ongoing sociopolitical and religious tensions, natural disasters and a dearth of resources, is struggling. While most children initially enroll in school, many stop attending and drop out within the first year of schooling (UNESCO, Education for all global monitoring report 2013/4: teaching and learning: achieving quality for all. UNESCO, Paris., 2014). Those who stay in school often repeat grades or move through the system without gaining even basic literacy and numeracy skills (SAFED, Annual status of education report: Pakistan 2013. South Asian Forum for Education Development, Lahore., 2014).


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadaf Shallwani
    • 1
  1. 1.Firelight FoundationSanta CruzUSA

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