Defining a Model for Development of Tactile Interfaces on Smartphones

  • Fan Zhang
  • Shaowei ChuEmail author
  • Naye Ji
  • Ruifang Pan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10902)


Tactile interaction on smartphones is becoming increasingly important in assistive technologies and special purpose applications. Although various tactile techniques exist, the development of effective and user-friendly tactile applications lacks design guidance. This work describes a distinct model that guides designers and developers in developing tactile interfaces on smartphones. The model has three distinct parts, namely, quantifying tactile stimuli, clustering, and tactile application experiment. We review existing techniques for processing each part and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. And we implement a tactile application on a TPad (Tactile Pattern display) phone on the basis of the design procedure of the model to demonstrate its usage. Results show that the workflow of the model can guide developers in implementing efficient tactile applications.


Tactile interface Design model Empirical studies in interaction design Usability Tactile reading 



This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 61502415) and Public Projects of Zhejiang Province (No. 2016C31G2240012).


  1. 1.
    Khan, M., Sulaiman, S., Said, A.M., Tahir, M.: Empirical validation of usability evaluation framework for haptic systems. In: 2012 International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICCIS), pp. 1058–1061 (2012).
  2. 2.
    Sinclair, I., Carter, J., Kassner, S., Van Erp, J., Weber, G., Elliott, L., Andrew, I.: Towards a standard on evaluation of tactile/haptic interactions. In: International Conference on Human Haptic Sensing and Touch Enabled Computer Applications, pp. 528–539 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grussenmeyer, W., Folmer, E.: Accessible touchscreen technology for people with visual impairments: a survey. ACM Trans. Accessible Comput. 9(2), 1–31 (2017). Scholar
  4. 4.
    van Erp, J.B., Carter, J., Andrew, I.: ISO’s work on tactile and haptic interaction guidelines. In: Proceedings of Eurohaptics, pp. 467–470 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Erp, J.B.F., Kern, T.A.: ISO’s work on guidance for haptic and tactile interactions. In: Ferre, M. (ed.) EuroHaptics 2008. LNCS, vol. 5024, pp. 936–940. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Erp, J.B.F., Kyung, K.-U., Kassner, S., Carter, J., Brewster, S., Weber, G., Andrew, I.: Setting the standards for haptic and tactile interactions: ISO’s work. In: Kappers, A.M.L., van Erp, J.B.F., Bergmann Tiest, W.M., van der Helm, F.C.T. (eds.) EuroHaptics 2010. LNCS, vol. 6192, pp. 353–358. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan, M., Sulaiman, S., Said, A.M., Tahir, M.: Classification of usability issues for haptic systems. In: 2011 7th International Conference on Emerging Technologies, pp. 1–4 (2011).
  8. 8.
    Khan, M., Sulaiman, S., Said, A.M., Tahir, M.: Usability studies in haptic systems. In: 2011 International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies, pp. 1–5 (2011).
  9. 9.
    Khan, M., Sulaiman, S., Said, A.M., Tahir, M.: Research approach to develop usability evaluation framework for haptic systems. In: 2011 National Postgraduate Conference, pp. 1–4 (2011).
  10. 10.
    Lederman, S.J.: Tactile roughness of grooved surfaces: the touching process and effects of macro- and microsurface structure. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 16(2), 385–395 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strohmeier, P., Hornbak, K.: Generating haptic textures with a vibrotactile actuator. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 4994–5005 (2017).
  12. 12.
    Biet, M., Casiez, G., Giraud, F., Lemaire-Semail, B.: Discrimination of virtual square gratings by dynamic touch on friction based tactile displays. In: 2008 Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 41–48 (2008).
  13. 13.
    Salminen, K., Surakka, V., Lylykangas, J., Raisamo, J., Saarinen, R., Raisamo, R., Rantala, J., Evreinov, G.: Emotional and behavioral responses to haptic stimulation. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1555–1562 (2008).
  14. 14.
    Chu, S., Zhang, F., Ji, N., Zhang, F., Pan, R.: Experimental evaluation of tactile patterns over frictional surface on mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of Chinese CHI, pp. 47–52 (2017).
  15. 15.
    Lee, J., Han, J., Lee, G.: Investigating the information transfer efficiency of a 3 × 3 watch-back tactile display. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1229–1232 (2015).
  16. 16.
    Prasad, M., Russell, M., Hammond, T.A.: Designing vibrotactile codes to communicate verb phrases. ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl. 11(1s), 1–21 (2014). Scholar
  17. 17.
    María Galdón, P., Ignacio Madrid, R., De La Rubia-Cuestas, E.J., Diaz-Estrella, A., Gonzalez, L.: Enhancing mobile phones for people with visual impairments through haptic icons: the effect of learning processes. Assistive Technol. 25(2), 80–87 (2013). Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mullenbach, J., Shultz, C., Colgate, J.E., Piper, A.M.: Exploring affective communication through variable-friction surface haptics. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3963–3972 (2014).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhejiang University of Media and CommunicationsHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations