Solid-State Chemistry

  • Anthony J. Hickey
  • Stefano Giovagnoli
Part of the AAPS Introductions in the Pharmaceutical Sciences book series (AAPSINSTR)


The compositional and structural characteristics of the solid represent the spatial physicochemical factors with implications for potential temporal chemical and physical effects. Characterizing these properties may be used to establish the initial and final state of a solid with respect to a process which may be connected to product quality and performance. These properties partially define expectations of stability, dissolution, and bioavailability, which in turn relate to safety and efficacy.

Occasionally particles exist with disordered, amorphous, molecular structure. Most frequently ordered systems exist that are defined by uniform distances between adjacent molecules that define the general morphology of the crystal system. However, the particle appearance may vary based on constraints of crystal growth or the presence of impurities.


  1. 1.
    Hickey A, Ganderton D. Pharmaceutical process engineering. 2nd ed. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roy J. Pharmaceutical impurities – a mini review. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2002;3:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Partha S. LC-MS/MS and NMR characterization of key impurities in Linglipin and Pamipexole. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol. 2015;28:1699–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Waseda Y, Matsubara E, Shinoda K. X-ray diffraction crystallography. New York: Springer; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mullin J. Crystallization. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carstensen J. Pharmaceutical principles of solid dosage forms. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing Company; 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Administration UFaD. Guidance for industry: Q8(R2) pharmaceutical development: US Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC; 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crowder T, Hickey A, Louey M, Orr NA. Guide to pharmaceutical particulate science. New York: Interpharm/CRC; 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zimon A, Volkova T. Effect of surface roughness on dust adhesion. Colloid J USSR. 1965;27:306–7. (English Translation)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pietsch W. Agglomerate bonding and strength. In: Fayed M, Otten L, editors. Handbook of powder science and technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1984. p. 231–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Hickey
    • 1
  • Stefano Giovagnoli
    • 2
  1. 1.Discovery Science and TechnologyRTI InternationalResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations