The Role of Nanoemulsions as Antimicrobial Agents in Plant Protection
Nanoemulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids (such as oil and water) that do not easily combine. In nanoemulsion, the diameters of the dispersed droplets are 500 nm or less. High-energy and low-energy methods can prepare stable nanoemulsions. High-pressure homogenizer or ultrasound homogenizer can be used to prepare nanoemulsion by high-energy emulsification method. Self-emulsification and phase-inversion methods – phase-inversion temperature and phase-inversion composition – are low-energy methods for nanoemulsion preparation. Low-energy emulsification methods depend on the phase behavior and properties of the ingredients, and they use the stored energy of the system to form nanodroplets. The emulsification can be resulted by changing the parameters such as temperature and composition, which would affect the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of the system. This chapter dedicated in the advantages, preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions in the field of plant protection.
KeywordsNanoemulsion Antimicrobial Huanglongbing Plant pathogens Nanofungicide
This research was supported by the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden, through a grant to Hashim Ayat (F5853).
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