Four Lithuanian Emigration Waves: Comparison Analysis of the Main Host Countries

  • Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-ValiūnienėEmail author
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


Lithuania gained its Independent from the Soviet Union after a 50 year occupation in 1990. The country went through an economic, political, social and cultural transformation, which affected the lives of its citizens. All these changes influenced emigration from Lithuania. This chapter reviews four emigration waves of Lithuania from 1990 to 2016. In addition, the chapter presents the results of an empirical study provided with Lithuanian diasporas in the four main destination countries, including the UK, Norway, Germany and Ireland during four emigration waves. The results revealed the main push and pull factors, which influenced people to depart to those countries. Low wages in Lithuania was highlighted as a primary factor in all host countries and its significance grows during all migration waves of modern Lithuania.


Migration Push-pull factors Migration waves Lithuanian diaspora Lithuania 



This research was funded by a grant (No. S-MIP-17-118) from the Research Council of Lithuania.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and BusinessKaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

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