Advertisement

A Portrait of the Current Portuguese Wave of Qualified Emigrants

  • Susana Costa e Silva
  • Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

For the several last decades Portugal has been an enjoyed positive migration flows. Since 2008, however, it has experience increased emigration that has not been seen since the late 1960s and early 1970s. This chapter aims to present a portrait of the current Portuguese wave of qualified diaspora in 2008–2015. The main reasons such as economic crises, low salaries and its citizens’ desire for better work opportunities where highlighted. In addition, English language, education and cheap traveling opportunities has changed the destination countries from former Portuguese-speaking colonial countries to European and mostly English-speaking countries.

Keywords

Migration Diaspora Portuguese language Portugal 

References

  1. Baganha MI, Góis P, Pereira PT (2005) International migration from and to Portugal: what do we know and where are we going? In: Zimmermann K (ed) European migration: what do we know? Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 415–457Google Scholar
  2. Bauer TH, Zimmermann KF (1999) Assessment of possible migration pressure and its labour market impact following EU enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe. IZA, BonnGoogle Scholar
  3. Borjas GJ (1989a) Economic theory and international migration. Int Migr Rev 23(3):457–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borjas GJ (1989b) Immigrant and emigrant earnings: a longitudinal study. Econ Inq 27(1):21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chorny V, Euwals R, Folmer K (2007) Immigration policy and welfare state design: a qualitative approach to explore the interaction. CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, No. 153Google Scholar
  6. Costa L, Martins NO, Oliveira FG (2016) Portugal’s bailout and the crisis of the European Union from a capability perspective. Camb J Econ 40(6):1479–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Jong GF, Gardner RW (1981) Migration decision making: multidisciplinary approaches to microlevel studies in developed and developing countries. Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Direção Gestal da Educação (2014) Revisão da estrutura curricular. http://www.dge.mec.pt/legislacao. Accessed 16 Jan 2017
  9. EF (2015) EF English Proficiency Index. EF Education First Ltd. http://media.ef.com/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v5/ef-epi-2015-english.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2017
  10. Elo M, Silva SC (2015) The role of satisfaction on labor diaspora dynamics – an analysis of entry and exit of Portuguese nurses. 11th IIBC (Iberian International Business Conference), Porto, Portugal, 2–3 October 2015. ISBN 978-972-99847-5-4Google Scholar
  11. ETS (2015) Report on test takers worldwide: the TOEIC listening and reading test. https://www.ets.org/s/toeic/pdf/ww_data_report_unlweb.pdf
  12. European Economy (2009) Economic crisis in Europe: causes, consequences and responses, 7. http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication15887_en.pdf. Accessed 04 Apr 2017
  13. European Testing Service (2016) A snapshot of the individuals who took the GRE® general test (July 2013–June 2016). https://www.ets.org/s/gre/pdf/snapshot_test_taker_data_2016.pdf
  14. Gomes RM (2015) Retratos da emigração Portuguesa qualificada. Bertrand Editora, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  15. Iravani MR (2011) Brain drain problem: a review. Int J Bus Soc Sci 2(15):284–289Google Scholar
  16. Jennissen RPW (2004) Macro-economic determinants of international migration in Europe. Dutch University Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaczmarczyk P, Okólski M (2005) International migration in Central and Eastern Europe–current and future trends. United Nations expert group meeting on International Migration and Development. Population Division. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations Secretariat, 6Google Scholar
  18. Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė V, Žickutė I (2017) Emigration after socialist regime in Lithuania: why the West is still the best? Balt J Manag 12(1):86–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee ES (1966) A theory of migration. Demography 3(1):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lesser J (1999) Immigrants, minorities, and the struggle for ethnicity in Brazil. Duke University Press, Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
  21. Liebig T (2003) Migration theory from a supply-side perspective. Discussion paper No. 92. Research Institute for Labour Economics and Labour Law, Switzerland, JulyGoogle Scholar
  22. Malheiros J (2002) Portugal seeks balance of emigration, immigration. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/portugal-seeks-balance-emigration-immigration. Accessed 19 Mar 2017
  23. Mihi Ramirez A (2016) Influence of socio-economic factors on the international migration flow in rich-poor countries. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kaunas University of Technology, LithuaniaGoogle Scholar
  24. Minto-Coy ID (2016) The role of diasporas in the growth and internationalisation of businesses in countries of origin. Diaspora Business, Inter-Disciplinary Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Observatório da Emigração (2015) Emigração Portuguesa: Relatório estatístico 2014. http://observatorioemigracao.pt/np4/file/4924/OEm_Factbook_2015_Destaques.pdf. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  26. OECD (2013) World migration in figures, a joint contribution by UN-DESA and the OECD to the United Nations high-level dialogue on migration and development (3–4 October). https://www.oecd.org/els/mig/World-Migration-in-Figures.pdf
  27. Pessoa F (1913) Livro do Desassossego. Relógio D’Água, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  28. Pessoa F (1934) Mensagem. Parceria António Maria Pereira, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  29. Piore MJ (1979) Birds of passage: migrant labour in industrial societies. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pires RP, Pereira C, Azevedo J, Ribeiro AC (2014) Emigração Portuguesa. Relatório estatístico 2014, Lisboa, Observatório da Emigração e Rede Migra, CIES-IUL, ISCTE-IULGoogle Scholar
  31. Pires RP, Pereira C, Azevedo J, Espírito-Santo I, Vidigal I, Ribeiro AC (2015) Emigração Portuguesa. Relatório Estatístico 2015, Lisboa, Observatório da Emigração e Rede Migra, CIES-IUL, ISCTE-IULGoogle Scholar
  32. PorData (2015) Permanent emigration in Portugal. http://www.pordata.pt/en. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  33. Rocha AD, Esteves F, Mello RCD, Silva JFD (2015) Diasporic and transnational internationalization: the case of Brazilian martial arts. Braz Adm Rev 12(4):403–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Runciman WG (1966) Relative deprivation and social justice. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  35. Sarmento EM, Reis J (2011) A Evolução da Abertura ao Exterior da Economia Portuguesa, BMEP, Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos do Ministério da Economia, da Inovação e do Desenvolvimento, n° 2Google Scholar
  36. Sell RR, De Jong GF (1978) Toward a motivational theory of migration decision making. J Popul 1(4):313–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sjaastad LA (1962) The costs and returns of human migration. J Polit Econ 70:80–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Statistical Office of the European Union Eurostat (2017) Demography and migration. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  39. Temple J (1999) A positive effect of human capital on growth. Econ Lett 65(1):131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UN (2015) Population division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs: International Migration Report 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/migreport.shtml. Accessed 16 Jan 2017
  41. Watanabe S (1969) Knowing and guessing: a quantitative study of inference and information. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. World Bank (2010) Emigration rate of tertiary educated (% of total tertiary educated population), by Frédéric Docquier, B. Lindsay Lowell, and Abdeslam Marfouk’s, “A Gendered Assessment of Highly Skilled Emigration” (2009). http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.EMI.TERT.ZS?page=2. Accessed 18 Mar 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susana Costa e Silva
    • 1
  • Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė
    • 2
  1. 1.Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica PortuguesaPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Kaunas University of TechnologyKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations