Socialising to Entrepreneurship: Issues in Diaspora Entrepreneurship and Multiculturalism in the UK

  • Sanya OjoEmail author
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This chapter connects culture and multiculturalism through a case study illustration to demonstrate the emergence of diaspora entrepreneurship in partying events among a black African group in the UK. The economic and social values of ethnic socio-cultural events are examined at the micro (individual), meso (group), and macro (society) levels. Whilst the individual and the society reap the benefit of the economic value in forms of economic empowerment and job creation, the group benefits from the social value in form of social bonding. However, there is the potentiality of events’ social impact contributing to the failure of multiculturalism (as espoused by the government). Hence, the perceived failure of multiculturalism in the UK found economic justifications in this genre of derived diaspora entrepreneurship.


Socio-cultural events Diaspora entrepreneurship Multiculturalism Culture Nigerians UK 


  1. Abati R (2011) The vanishing ‘Owambe’ culture. Guardian Newspaper (Nigeria). Accessed 25 Nov 2016
  2. Adler PA, Adler P (1994) Observational techniques. In: Denzin N, Lincoln Y (eds) Handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp 377–392Google Scholar
  3. Ajayi OS (1998) Yoruba dance – the semiotics of movement and body attitude in a Nigerian culture. African World Press, Trenton, NJGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldrich HE, Zimmer C (1986) Entrepreneurship through social networks. In: Sexton D, Smilor R (eds) The art and science of entrepreneurship. Ballinger, New York, pp 3–23Google Scholar
  5. Alesina A, LaFerrara E (2000) Participation in heterogenous communities. Q J Econ 115:847–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altinay L, Saunders MNK, Wang CL (2014) The influence of culture on trust judgments in customer relationship development by ethnic minority small businesses. J Small Bus Manag 52(1):59–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appadurai A (1996) Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of globalization. Regents of the University of Minnesota, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  8. Batten G (2007) Immigration: action overdue! Accessed 28 May 2014
  9. BBC (2010) Cameron plays down cabinet rift over non-EU migrant cap. Accessed 09 June 2011
  10. BBC (2011) State multiculturalism has failed, says David Cameron. Accessed 25 May 2014
  11. Bonacich E (1973) A theory of middleman minorities. Am Sociol Rev 37:547–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brimicombe A (2007) Ethnic, religion, and residential segregation in London: evidence from a computational typology of minority communities. Environ Plann Des 34(5):884–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgess A, Burgess T (2005) Guide to Western Canada, 7th edn. Globe Pequot Press, GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Cahn M (2008) Indigenous entrepreneurship, culture and micro-enterprise in the Pacific Islands: case studies from Samoa. Entrep Reg Dev 20:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clifford J (1992) Sites of crossing: borders and diasporas in late 20th century expressive culture. The Seeger lecture. Society for Ethnomusicology, Seattle, WA, Filipinas October 24, 1994. Signed, Sealed, Delivered. December, pp 16–18Google Scholar
  16. Connolly K (2010) Angela Merkel declares death of German multiculturalism. The Guardian Newspaper (UK) 18/10/20, p 16Google Scholar
  17. Cornelius WA (1992) From sojourners to settlers: the changing profile of Mexican labor migration to California in the 1980s. In: Bustamante JA, Reynolds CW, Hinojosa Ojeda RA (eds) U.S.-Mexico relations: labor market independence. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 155–195Google Scholar
  18. Council of Europe (2009) Immigration from sub-Saharan Africa. Report, committee on migration, refugees and population. Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Doc. 11526Google Scholar
  19. Dana LP, Dana TE (2005) Expanding the scope of methodologies used in entrepreneurship research. Int J Entrep Small Bus 2(1):79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daniels MJ, Norman WC (2003) Estimating the economic impacts of seven regular sport tourism events. J Sport Tour 8:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deakins D, Smallbone D, Ishaq M, Whittam G, Wyper J (2009) Minority ethnic enterprise in Scotland. J Ethn Migr Stud 35(2):309–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Accessed 09 Nov 2015
  23. Downing S (2005) The social construction of entrepreneurship: narrative and dramatic processes in coproduction of organizations and identities. Entrep Theory Pract 29(2):185–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ekinsmyth C (2011) Challenging the boundaries of entrepreneurship: the spatialities and practices of UK ‘Mumpreneurs’. Geoforum 42:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elo M, Vemuri S (2016) Organizing mobility: a case study of Bukharian Jewish diaspora. Diaspora Stud 9(2):179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ember M, Ember CR, Skoggard I (eds) (2004) Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the World. Vol I: Overviews and topics; Vol II: Diaspora communities. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Everyculture Culture of Nigeria – traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs. Accessed 05 May 2015
  28. Finney N, Simpson L (2009) Sleepwalking into segregation? Challenging the myths about race and migration. Policy Press, BristolCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foner N (ed) (2003) American arrivals: anthropology engages the new immigration Santa Fe. SAR Press, New MexicoGoogle Scholar
  30. Furnivall JS (1939) Netherlands India. In: A study of plural economy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Granovetter M (1985) Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. Am J Sociol 91(3):481–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gurin P, Nagda BA, Lopez GE (2004) The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. J Soc Issues 60:17–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harima A (2014) Network dynamics of descending diaspora entrepreneurship: multiple case studies with Japanese entrepreneurs in emerging economies. J Entrep Manag Innov 10(4):65–92Google Scholar
  34. Hayton JC, George G, Zahra SA (2002) National culture and entrepreneurship: a review of behavioral research. Entrep Theory Pract 26(4):33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heath A, Demireva N (2014) Has multiculturalism failed in Britain? Ethn Racial Stud 37(1):161–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heywood A (2007) Political ideologies, 4th edn. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  37. Hollinger P (2011) Council of Europe warns on multiculturalism. Accessed June 2013
  38. Hytti U (2005) New meanings for entrepreneurs: from risk-taking heroes to safe-seeking professionals. J Organ Chang Manag 18(6):594–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jarvis AA (2015) Rich, urbane and entrepreneurial: meet Africa’s new super-rich with a taste for the London lifestyle. Accessed June 2016
  40. Johannisson B (2011) Towards a practice theory of entrepreneuring. Small Bus Econ 36:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnston R, Forrest J, Poulsen M (2002) Are there ethnic enclaves/ghettos in English cities? Urban Stud 39:591–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalin I (2010) The slow death of multiculturalism in Europe. Accessed 28 Jan 2013
  43. Kanter RM (1989) When giants learn to dance: mastering the challenge of strategy, management, and careers in the 1990s. Simon and Schuster, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Key VO (1949) Southern politics in state and nation. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Kim K, Uysal M (2003) Perceived socio-economic impacts of festivals and events among organizers. J Hosp Leis Market 10:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim HJ, Gursoy D, Lee SB (2006) The impact of the 2002 World Cup on South Korea: comparisons of pre- and post-games. Tour Manag 27:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kisiel R (2011) Thousands of illegal immigrants escape deportation because police fear being called racist. Accessed 27 Aug 2015
  48. Lassalle P, McElwee G (2016) Polish entrepreneurs in Glasgow and entrepreneurial opportunity structure. Int J Entrep Behav Res 22(2):260–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lerman A (2010) In defence of multiculturalism. Accessed 01 Oct 2015
  50. Light I (1979) Disadvantaged minorities in self-employment. Int J Comp Sociol 20:31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Light I, Dana L-P (2013) Boundaries of social capital in entrepreneurship. Entrep Theory Pract 37(3):603–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Light I, Rosenstein C (1995) Race, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship in urban America. Aldine de Gruyter, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Mitchell K (2004) Geographies of identity: multiculturalism unplugged. Prog Hum Geogr 28:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Modood T (2007) Multiculturalism: a civic idea. Polity, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morris M, Pitt L (1995) Informal sector activity as entrepreneurship: insights from a South African township. J Small Bus Manag 33(1):78–85Google Scholar
  56. Mustafa M, Chen S (2010) The strength of family networks in transnational immigrant entrepreneurship. Thunderbird Int Bus Rev 52:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. National Records of Scotland (2012) Statistics & Data. Available Accessed August 2016
  58. Newland K, Tanaka H (2010) Mobilizing diaspora entrepreneurship for development. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (2012) Statistics. Available Accessed August 2016
  60. Nwankwo S (2005) Characterisation of Black African entrepreneurship in the UK: a pilot study. J Small Bus Enterp Develop 12(1):120–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nwankwo S, Lindridge A (1998) Marketing to ethnic minorities in Britain. J Market Pract Appl Market Sci 4(7):200–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nwankwo S, Madichie N, Ekwulugo F (2011) Researching African entrepreneurship in the UK. In: Nwankwo, Ahmed (eds) African entrepreneurship in global contexts: enterprise solution to sustainable development. WASD, London, pp 61–74Google Scholar
  63. Office for National Statistics (2005) Focus on ethnicity & identity. ONS, March 2005Google Scholar
  64. Office for National Statistics (2012) Ethnicity and national identity in England and Wales: 2011. Available Accessed November 2016
  65. Ojo S (2013) Diaspora entrepreneurship: a study of Nigerian entrepreneurs in London. PhD thesis, University of East London. Accessed Nov 2013
  66. Ojo S, Nwankwo S, Gbadamosi A (2013a) Ethnic entrepreneurship: the myths of informal and illegal enterprises in the UK. Entrep Reg Dev 25(7–8):587–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ojo S, Nwankwo S, Gbadamosi A (2013b) African diaspora entrepreneurs: navigating entrepreneurial spaces in ‘home’ and ‘host’ countries. Int J Entrep Innovat 14(4):211–221Google Scholar
  68. Olanrewaju T (2011) Aso-ebi: For fashion or culture? Nigerian Tribune Newspaper (Nigeria), 12 May 2011Google Scholar
  69. Ololade O (2010) The craze for Aso ebi: Nigerians’ obsession with a party apparel. The Nation Newspaper (Nigeria), 26 June 2010Google Scholar
  70. Pears E (2012) 2011 census: British Africans now dominant black group. Accessed Jan 2017
  71. Pécoud A (2002) Weltoffenheit schafft Jobs: Turkish entrepreneurship and multiculturalism in Berlin. Int J Urban Reg Res 26(3):494–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Portes A, Bach R (1985) Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  73. Putnam RD (1993a) The prosperous community: social capital and public life. Am Prospect 4(13):35–42Google Scholar
  74. Putnam RD (1993b) Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  75. Putnam RD (2000) Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Putnam RD (2007) E Pluribus Unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century – the 2006 Johan Skytte prize. Scand Polit Stud 30(2):137–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ram M (1994) Managing to survive. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Ranyane KA (2015) Survivalist entrepreneurship: an income generating alternative for the unemployed populace. Mediterr J Soc Sci 6(4):301–306Google Scholar
  79. Rouse R (1992) Making sense of settlement: class transformation, cultural struggle and transnationalism among Mexican migrants in the United States. In: Glick Schiller N, Basch L, Blanc-Szanton C (eds) Towards a transnational perspective on migration. New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp 25–52Google Scholar
  80. Sahin M, Nijkamp P, Baycan-Levent T (2007) Multicultural diversity and migrant entrepreneurship: the case of the Netherlands. A/Z ITU J Fac Archit 4(1):22–46Google Scholar
  81. Sailer S (2007) Fragmented future. American conservative. Accessed 28 Jan 2015
  82. Shaughnessy JJ, Zechmeister EB, Zechmeister JS (2012) Research methods in psychology, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Siebold S (2010) Merkel says German multiculturalism has failed. Accessed 28 Jan 2015
  84. Singer R (2002) African diasporas and the relocation challenge. The American Christian science monitor (Feb 26, 2002 edition)Google Scholar
  85. Slotte-Kock S, Coviello N (2010) Entrepreneurship research on network processes: a review and ways forward. Entrep Theory Pract 34:31–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Small Business Service (2004) A government action plan for small businesses: the evidence base. Department of Trade and Industry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  87. Sparrow A (2008) Cameron attacks ‘state multiculturalism’. Accessed 20 June 2016.
  88. Steyaert C (2007) ‘Entrepreneuring’ as a conceptual attractor? A review of process theories in 20 years of entrepreneurship studies. Entrep Reg Dev 19(6):453–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Steyaert C, Katz J (2004) Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: geographical, discursive and social dimensions. Entrep Reg Dev 16(3):179–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Svejenova S (2005) The path with the heart: creating the authentic career. J Manag Stud 42(5):947–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Thornton PH (1999) The sociology of entrepreneurship. Annu Rev Sociol 25:19–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trotman CJ (2002) Multiculturalism: roots and realities. University Press, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  93. Urban Dictionary. Accessed 25 May 2011
  94. Urbano D (2006) New business creation in Catalonia: support measures and attitudes towards entrepreneurship. Generalitat de Catalunya, CIDEM, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  95. Uslaner EM (2002) The moral foundations of trust. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Uslaner EM (2010) Segregation, mistrust and minorities. Ethnicities 10:415–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Valenzuela A (2000) Day labourers as entrepreneurs? J Ethn Migr Stud 27(2):335–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vertovec S (2006) The emergence of super-diversity in Britain. Centre for Migration, Policy and Society, working paper no. 25. University of Oxford, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  99. Volery T (2007) Ethnic entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework. In: Dana LP (ed) Handbook of research on ethnic minority entrepreneurship: a co-evolutionary view on resource management. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 30–41Google Scholar
  100. Waldinger R, Aldrich H, Ward R (1990) Ethnic entrepreneurs: immigrant businesses in industrial societies. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Wintour P (2016) Britain has voted to leave the EU – what happens next? Accessed 24 June 2016
  102. Xie Y, Gough M (2011) Ethnic enclaves and the earnings of immigrants. Demography 48(4):1293–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Business and LawUniversity of East LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations