Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Globally, neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. It is endemic to tropical zones of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. The manifestations of clinical disease are diverse and largely depend on the anatomical site of the infection in the brain parenchyma. The most common clinical presentation is the sudden onset of seizures in a patient who had previously traveled to or lived in an endemic location. This presentation is reflective of the parenchymal form of the disease, which can be diagnosed presumptively when neuroimaging displays one, a few, or many cystic and/or calcified lesions in the brain. When the parasitic cysts are located outside the brain parenchyma, but still within the central nervous system, the disease typically presents as new-onset non-communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment includes the administration of antiparasitic medication, often in combination with systemic glucocorticoid. Antiepileptic medications are used to treat or prevent seizures.
KeywordsNeurocysticercosis Taenia solium Seizures Neglected tropical diseases Tapeworm
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