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Gastrointestinal Growth and Development: From Embryo to Adult. The Aging Gut

  • Menizibeya Osain Welcome
Chapter

Abstract

The gastrointestinal (GI) system is one of the first systems to develop during the process of ontogenesis. Any disorder of GI tract during this period can result to serious consequences on the organism. Therefore, it is important to address the processes of normal development of the GI tract. This chapter provides data on the origin as well as structure and functions of the developing GI tract at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels at different stages of ontogenesis. The chapter also provides the fundamental concepts and principles governing the developing GI tract beginning from the formation of the primitive gut to maturity and also discusses the processes of aging of the gut up to old age.

Keywords

GI growth GI development Primitive gut GI aging Fetal gut Newborn gut Infant Geriatrics Old age Gut microbes 

Abbreviations

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

Epo

Erythropoietin

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GDNF

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor

GFRα1

GDNF family receptor-α1

GH

Growth hormone

GI

Gastrointestinal

GLP-2

Glucagon-like peptide-2

Hand2

Heart And Neural Crest Derivatives-expressed Protein 2

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

ICC

Interstitial cells of Cajal

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

KGF

Keratinocyte growth factor

NCCs

Neural crest cells

NEC

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Phox2b

Paired-like homeobox 2b

RET

Rearrangement during transformation

Sox10

SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 10

TGFβ

Transforming Growth Factor beta

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical SciencesCollege of Health Sciences, Nile University of NigeriaFCT-AbujaNigeria

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