Gastrointestinal Growth and Development: From Embryo to Adult. The Aging Gut

  • Menizibeya Osain WelcomeEmail author


The gastrointestinal (GI) system is one of the first systems to develop during the process of ontogenesis. Any disorder of GI tract during this period can result to serious consequences on the organism. Therefore, it is important to address the processes of normal development of the GI tract. This chapter provides data on the origin as well as structure and functions of the developing GI tract at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels at different stages of ontogenesis. The chapter also provides the fundamental concepts and principles governing the developing GI tract beginning from the formation of the primitive gut to maturity and also discusses the processes of aging of the gut up to old age.


GI growth GI development Primitive gut GI aging Fetal gut Newborn gut Infant Geriatrics Old age Gut microbes 



Epidermal growth factor




Fibroblast growth factor


Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor


GDNF family receptor-α1


Growth hormone




Glucagon-like peptide-2


Heart And Neural Crest Derivatives-expressed Protein 2


Hepatocyte growth factor


Interstitial cells of Cajal


Insulin-like growth factor 1


Keratinocyte growth factor


Neural crest cells


Necrotizing enterocolitis


Paired-like homeobox 2b


Rearrangement during transformation


SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 10


Transforming Growth Factor beta


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical SciencesCollege of Health Sciences, Nile University of NigeriaFCT-AbujaNigeria

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