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History of Development of Gastrointestinal Physiology: From Antiquity to Modern Period and the Birth of Modern Digestive Physiology

  • Menizibeya Osain Welcome
Chapter

Abstract

Curiosity and the quest for addressing human maladies or problems of nature are possibly the key driving forces for discoveries in science. Apart from shaping the reputation of the scientists and historically inscribing his or her name in the memorable plate, outstanding discoveries in science gain varying levels of recognition from the local to the global stage. The Nobel Prize is the most respected honor and highest level of recognition given to any individual on planet Earth for exceptional contribution to solving key problems of nature and mankind. Since 1901, this highest accolade started recognizing extraordinary endeavor of scientists in addressing glaring issues of existence and nature. Traditionally, the prize is given in literature, physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine. Over the past years, award recipients, probably due to the interchangeability and relationship between disciplines in science, scientists who are physicians and researchers in physiology or medicine, for example, have been awarded the prize not only in physiology or medicine, but also in chemistry. Chemistry and physiology or medicine have had a close relationship as regards discoveries that have necessitated the award of the Nobel Prize. Except in rare cases where the prize was awarded to a discovery that happened by chance, most awards were made to discoveries that had solid roots in the previous works of other scientists. Therefore, it is imperative to have a basic knowledge of the historic timeline of major developmental events and achievements to allow for meaningful future investigations that could fetch the world results for the betterment of life. Since its inception, out of 211 Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine, awarded between 1901 and 2016 (107 times of Nobel Prize awards), five laureates have received the prestigious award in the area of the gastrointestinal physiology. All five prizes were won by scientists whose works were rooted in previous works of other scientists. The research works of the scientists whose ideas laid the basis for breakthrough studies are worth considering. The first Nobel laureate in the area of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849–1936), who set the stage for breakthrough discoveries in GI physiology, is a physician, physiologist, and pharmacologist. He won the prize in 1904, making him the fourth scientist in the list of Nobel Prize Winners since the inception of the award in 1901. Apart from the Nobel Prize, there are other scientific prizes with near equivalent rating to the Nobel Prize. Some of the scientific prizes are awarded specifically to young scientists. This chapter provides contemporary information on the historical timeline of events that transpired on GI physiology beginning from antiquity to the contemporary period.

Keywords

Developmental history Evolution Nobel Prize Antiquity Renaissance Modern era Modern digestive physiology Gastrointestinal physiology Gastric fistula Digestion Sham feeding Pepsis Nervism Heidenhain pouch Pavlov’s pouch Translational physiology Translational medicine Translational research Reductionist Integrative Physiome project Giome Project Hippocrates Aristotle Plato Herophilus (Herofilos) of Alexandria Praxagoras Andreas Vesalius Erasistratos of Keos Susruta (Sushruta) Samhita and Charaka Samhita Claudius Galen of Pergamum Magnus of Nisibis (or Emesa) Alexandrias Byzantine physicians Caelius Aurelianus Soranus of Ephesus Avicenna Norman Guitmund Theodoric Borgognoni Guido Lanfranchi (Lanfranc of Milan) Johannes Guttenberg Alessandro Benedetti Jacopo Berengario da Carpi Leonardo da Vinci Paracelsus Johan Thölde René Descartes Giovanni Alphonso Alexander Mikhailovich Ugolev Arne Dahlqvist Borelli Herman Boerhaave Regnier de Graaf Friedrich Tiedemann Leopold Gmelin Jöns Jakob Berzelius Andrés Laguna de Segovia Christopher Columbus Jan Baptiste van Helmont Andreas Vesalius Franciscus de la Boë Sylvius Viridet William Harvey Caspar Bauhin Johann Georg Wirsung Francis Glisson Johann Conrad Peyer Johann Conrad Brunner Johann Nathanael Lieberkühn René de Réaumur Edward Stevens Johann Nepomuk Eberle Erhard Friedrich Leuchs Anselme Payen Jean-François Persoz Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne Andreas Sigismund Marggraf Jean Baptiste André Dumas Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin Pierre Jean Robiquet William Hyde Wollaston Karl Axel Hampus Mörner Jons Jakob Berzelius Gerardus Johannes Mulder Gabriel G. Valentina Apollinaire Bouchardat Claude Marie Sandras Louis Mialhe Albrecht von Haller Fredericus Bernardus Albinus Bernhard Siegfried Albinus Hermann Boerhaave Albinus Andreas Bonn Abbe Lazzaro Spallanzani John Richardson Young Guillaume Dupuytren William Prout Camillo Golgi Theodor Schwann Johannes Peter Müller John Newport Langley John Sydney Edkins John Howard Northrop Roger Moss Herriott François Magendie Sir Charles Bell Theodor Schwann Karl (Carl) Ludwig Ernst von Brücke William Bayliss Nikolai Konstantinovich Kulchitsky Karl Hugo Kronecker Samuel James Meltzer Saturnin Arloing Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov Edwin Burket Twitmyer Sir Charles Scott Sherrington Edgar Adrian Johanes Andreas Fibiger Henry Hallet Dale George Palade James Whyte Black Robin Warren Barry Marshall Basov Vasiliy Alexandrovich Sergey Petrovich Botkin André Latarjet Lester Reynold Dragstedt William Beaumont Claude Bernard Jan Evangelista Purkyně Rudolph Heidenhain Ivan Petrovich Pavlov 

Abbreviations

AD

Anno Domini

BC

Before Christ

BCE

Before Common Era

ca (syn. c., c, cir., circ., cca.)

Circa

CE

Common Era

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

GI

Gastrointestinal

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

α

Alpha

β

Beta

γ

Gamma

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical SciencesCollege of Health Sciences, Nile University of NigeriaFCT-AbujaNigeria

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