• Tia Hoffer
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Yvonne Muirhead
  • J Reid Meloy
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


The methods section describes how the cases were identified through the pet abuse website. Letters were sent to the law enforcement agencies for investigative materials. Cases that involved puppy mills, dog fighting, hunting and/or overworking farm animals were excluded, along with cases of female or juvenile offenders. The study focused primarily on active cases of animal cruelty. Based on the criteria, a total of 259 cases of adult males who were arrested for animal cruelty offenses comprised the sample. The cases were from 41 states in the United States. A 139-questions animal cruelty protocol was used to code the cases and interrater reliability was conducted by having all three coders complete coding from three of the same cases. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data that was provided a code number for privacy.


Active animal cruelty Snowball effect FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS) ( Official records 


  1. Levitt, L. (2011). The criminal histories of animal cruelty offenders. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.Google Scholar
  2. Levitt, L., Hoffer, T. A., & Loper, A. B. (2016). Criminal histories of a subsample of animal cruelty offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 30, 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tia Hoffer
    • 1
  • Holly Hargreaves-Cormany
    • 2
  • Yvonne Muirhead
    • 3
  • J Reid Meloy
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal Bureau of InvestigationKapoleiUSA
  2. 2.Marymount UniversityArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Federal Bureau of InvestigationSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.University of CaliforniaLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations