Ballistic Range Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Shock Stand-Off Distances Over Spheres in CO2

  • Dongjun LiaoEmail author
  • Sen Liu
  • Jie Huang
  • Hexiang Jian
  • Aimin Xie
  • Zonghao Wang
Conference paper


To provide experimental data for validation of numerical simulations, measurement of shock stand-off distances over spheres in CO2 has been made in the hypervelocity ballistic range of Hypervelocity Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center. The models were spheres with a diameter of 10 mm. The flight speeds were between 2.122 km/s and 4.220 km/s, with ambient pressures between 2.42 kPa and 12.3 kPa. The shock stand-off distance was measured using shadowgraph. Results revealed that high-temperature gas effect is more obvious in CO2 than in air, while two-temperature nonequilibrium model can basically reproduce the shock stand-off distances over spheres under present test conditions. The flow over spheres of present test is speculated to be mainly nonequilibrium. The accuracy and capability of two-temperature nonequilibrium model in CO2 may differ with different flow speeds and pressures, which need to be further investigated.



The authors would like to express sincere thanks to Prof. Andrew Higgins for his valuable comments and suggestions. Special thanks are also given to the personnel who have participated in the tests.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongjun Liao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sen Liu
    • 1
  • Jie Huang
    • 1
  • Hexiang Jian
    • 1
  • Aimin Xie
    • 1
  • Zonghao Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Hypervelocity Aerodynamics InstituteChina Aerodynamics Research and Development CenterMianyangPeople’s Republic of China

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