Network Coding-Based Broadcasting Schemes for Cognitive Radio Networks

  • Khaqan Zaheer
  • Mubashir Husain Rehmani
  • Mohamed Othman
Part of the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing book series (EAISICC)


Tremendous growth in the field of wireless communication and widespread usage of handheld devices make the spectrum overcrowded. According to a survey of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), only 15–85% of the spectrum is being utilized which compels the researcher to develop technologies for opportunistic spectrum utilization. The emerging field of cognitive radio networks (CRN) provides an exciting solution to solve the problem of spectrum scarcity and to improve spectrum utilization by opportunistic utilization of spectrum. In CRN, the secondary users (SUs) utilize the spectrum which is licensed to primary radio users (PUs) when the spectrum is idle and it has to vacate when they return to that channel. However, channel heterogeneity and diversity in CRN make it challenging for unlicensed users to know about the availability and accessibility of channel without prior information about spectrum. Moreover, the broadcast collision due to simultaneous reception of broadcast messages at the same node and PU activity results into waste of network resources which should be mitigated in multi-hop CRN. The challenges of using network coding for broadcasting include PU detection, unpredictable channel availability, heterogeneous channels, contention among SUs, broadcasting over multiple channels, channel selection, neighbour discovery coordination, collision avoidance through distributed access spectrum, new coding schemes and spectrum sensing. NC can be used in CRN for encoding packets to provide an adequate solution for broadcasting problems by improving spectrum efficiency, adapting the behaviour of primary user, improving packet dissemination ratio, minimizing number of packet retransmission and efficient recovery of information at the receiver for effective and efficient transmission of information across network. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive survey of NC-based broadcasting schemes for CRN.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaqan Zaheer
    • 1
  • Mubashir Husain Rehmani
    • 2
  • Mohamed Othman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communication Technology and NetworkUniversiti PutraMalaysiaMalaysia
  2. 2.Telecommunications Software and Systems GroupWaterford Institute of TechnologyWaterfordIreland

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