Advertisement

Medical Management of Head and Face Pain

  • Johnathan H. Goree
  • Christopher S. Fiedorek
  • Ruben G. Alexander
  • Boris Spektor
Chapter

Abstract

No longer regarded as a potent, universal remedy for all pain, opiates have fallen out of favor in the most recent pain literature. Increases in addiction, rising overdose deaths, systemic side effects, and the discovery of opiate-induced hyperalgesia have illuminated the need for non-opiate alternatives for all chronic pain disorders. During this chapter we will explore the literature behind many of these alternative, non-opiate medications and their use for nonmalignant pain of the head and neck.

Keywords

Headache Migraine Tension-type headache Medical management Narcotics Non-opiate analgesics Antiepileptics Anti-inflammatory meds Corticosteroids Antidepressants Botox Migraine abortives 

References

  1. 1.
    Ambrosio AF, Soares-da-Silva P, Carvalho CM, Carvalho AP. Mechanisms of action of carbamazepine and its derivatives, oxcarbazepine, BIA 2-093, and BIA 2-024*. Neurochem Res. 2002;27(1):121–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blom S. Tic douloureux treated with new anticonvulsant. Experiences with G32883. Arch Neurol. 1963;9:285–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campbell FG, Graham JG, Zilkha KJ. Clinical trial of carbamazepine (tegretol) in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1966;29(3):265–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rockliff BW, Davis EH. Controlled sequential trials of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol. 1966;15(2):129–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Killian JM, Fromm GH. Carbamazepine in the treatment of neuralgia. Use of side effects. Arch Neurol. 1968;19(2):129–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicol CF. A four year double-blind study of tegretol in facial pain. Headache. 1969;9(1):54–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cruccu G, et al. AAN-EFNS guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:1013–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Micromedex Drug Reference Essentials App; 2017; micromedex.com/mobile.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad AR, et al. Anticonvulsant drugs for management of pain: a systematic review. BMJ. 1995;311:1047–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wiffen P, Collins S, Carroll D, et al. Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD001133.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wiffen P, McQuay H, Moore R. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD005451.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dougherty JA, Rhoney DH. Gabapentin: a unique anti-epileptic agent. Neurol Res. 2001;23:821–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Errante LD, Williamson A, Spencer DD, Petroff OAC. Gabapentin and vigabatrin increase GABA in the human neocortical slice. Epilepsy Res. 2002;49:203–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petroff OAC, Rothman DL, Behar KL, Lamoureux D, Mattson RH. The effect of gabapentin on brain gamma-aminobutyric acid in patients with epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 1996;39:95–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Whitworth TL, Quick MW. Upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter expression: role of alkylated γ-aminobutyric acid derivatives. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001;29:736–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Freiman TM, Kukolja J, Heinemeyer J, Eckhardt K, Aranda H, Rominger A, Dooley DJ, Zentner J, Feuerstein TJ. Modulation of K+-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release from rat and human brain slices by gabapentin: involvement of KATP channels. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001;363:537–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jaggi AS, Singh N. Role of different brain areas in peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain Res. 2011;1381:187–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jarvis SE, Zamponi GW. Trafficking and regulation of neuronal voltage gated calcium channels. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2007;19:474–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morimoto S, Ito M, Oda S, Sugiyama A, Kuroda M, Adachi-Akahane S. Spinal mechanism underlying the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin studied in the mouse spinal nerve ligation model. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118:455–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yaksh TL. Calcium channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2006;7(1 Suppl 1):S13–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor CP. The biology and pharmacology of α2-δ proteins. CNS Drug Rev. 2004;10:183–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kukkar A, Bali A, Singh N, et al. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moore RA, Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Toelle T, Rice ASC. Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD007938.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khan OA. Gabapentin relieves trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis patients. Neurology. 1998;51:611.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Solaro C, Lunardi GL, Capello E. An open-label trial of gabapentin treatment of paroxysmal symptoms in multiple sclerosis patients. Neurology. 1998;51:609–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Solaro C, Messmer Uccelli M, et al. Low-dose gabapentin combined with either lamotrigine or carbamazepine can be useful therapies for trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 2000;44:45–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rozen TD. Relief of anesthesia dolorosa with gabapentin. Headache. 1999;39:761.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sawada T, Asai J, Nomiyama T, Masuda K, Takenaka H, Katoh N. Trigeminal trophic syndrome: report of a case and review of the published work. J Dermatol. 2014;41:525–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    White TL, Kent PF, Kurtz DB, Emko P. Effectiveness of gabapentin for treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Sug. 2004;130:786–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heckmann SM, Heckman JG, Ungethum A, Hujoel P, Hummel T. Gabapentin has little or no effect in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome—results of an open-label pilot study. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:e6–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    López-D’Alessandro E, Escovich L. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and gabapentin, its efficacy in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16(5):e635–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li Z, et al. Pregabalin is a potent and selective ligand for α(2)δ-1 and α(2)δ-2 calcium channel subunits. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;667:80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lotarski SM, et al. Anxiolytic-like activity of pregabalin in the Vogel conflict test in α2δ-1 (R217A) and α2δ-2 (R279A) mouse mutants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:615–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dolphin AC. Calcium channel auxiliary alpha2delta and beta subunits: trafficking and one step beyond. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:542–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tuchman M, et al. Central sensitization and Ca(V)α2δ ligands in chronic pain syndromes: pathologic processes and pharmacologic effect. J Pain. 2010;11:1241–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bauer CS, et al. The anti-allodynic alpha(2)delta ligand pregabalin inhibits the trafficking of the calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit to presynaptic terminals in vivo. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:525–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Takeuchi Y, et al. Pregabalin, S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba, activates the descending noradrenergic system to alleviate neuropathic pain in the mouse partial sciatic nerve ligation model. Neuropharmacology. 2007;53:842–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dworkin RH, Corbin AE, Young JP Jr, Sharma U, LaMoreaux L, Bockbrader H, Garofalo EA, Poole RM. Pregabalin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2003;60(8):1274.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sabatowski R, Gálvez R, Cherry DA, Jacquot F, Vincent E, Maisonobe P, Versavel M. Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain. 2004;109(1–2):26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moore RA, Straube S, Wiffen PJ, Derry S, McQuay HJ. Pregabalin for acute and chronic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD007076.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tunnicliff G. Basis of the antiseizure action of phenytoin. Gen Pharmacol. 1996;27(7):1091–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Patejdl R, Leroux AC, Noack T. Phenytoin inhibits contractions of rat gastrointestinal and portal vein smooth muscle by inhibiting calcium entry. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(10):1453–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Colombo E, Franceschetti S, Avanzini G, Mantegazza M. Phenytoin inhibits the persistent sodium current in neocortical neurons by modifying its inactivation properties. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55329.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thorn CF, Whirl-Carrillo M, Leeder JS, Klein TE, Altman RB. Phar-mGKB summary: phenytoin pathway. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22(6):466–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bergouignan M. Cures heureuses de nevralgies faciales essentielles par le diphenylhydantoinate de soude. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol. 1942;63:34–41.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chadda VS, Mathur MS. Double blind study of the effects of diphenylhydantoin sodium on diabetic neuropathy. J Assoc Physicians India. 1978;26(5):403–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saudek CD, Werns S, Reidenberg MM. Phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977;22(2):196–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McCleane GJ. Intravenous infusion of phenytoin relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Anesth Analg. 1999;89(4):985–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Birse F, Derry S, Moore RA. Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD009485.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Galletti F, Cupini LM, Corbelli I, Calabresi P, Sarchielli P. Pathophysiological basis of migraine prophylaxis. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;89:176–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herrero AI, Del Olmo N, Gonzalez-Escalada JR, Solis JM. Two new actions of topiramate: inhibition of depolarizing GABA(a)-mediated responses and activation of a potassium conductance. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:210–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sun GC, Werkman TR, Battefeld A, Clare JJ, Wadman WJ. Carbamazepine and topiramate modulation of transient and persistent sodium currents studied in HEK293 cells expressing the Na(v)1.3 alpha-subunit. Epilepsia. 2007;48:774–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuzmiski JB, Barr W, Zamponi GW, MacVicar BA. Topiramate inhibits the initiation of plateau potentials in CA1 neurons by depressing R-type calcium channels. Epilepsia. 2005;46:481–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gibbs JW 3rd, Sombati S, DeLorenzo RJ, Coulter DA. Cellular actions of topiramate: blockade of kainate-evoked inward currents in cultured hippocampal neurons. Epilepsia. 2000;41:S10–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Poulsen CF, Simeone TA, Maar TE, Smith-Swintosky V, White HS, Schousboe A. Modulation by topiramate of AMPA and kainate mediated calcium influx in cultured cerebral cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar neurons. Neurochem Res. 2004;29:275–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Braga MFM, Aroniadou-Anderjaska V, Li H, Rogawski MA. Topiramate reduces excitability in the basolateral amygdala by selectively inhibiting GluK1 (GluR5) kainate receptors on interneurons and positively modulating GABAa receptors on principal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:558–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kanda T, Kurokawa M, Tamura S, et al. Topiramate reduces abnormally high extracellular levels of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampus of spontaneously epileptic rats (SER). Life Sci. 1996;59:1607–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Edvinsson L, Linde M. New drugs in migraine treatment and prophylaxis: telcagepant and topiramate. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):645–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brandes JL, Saper JR, Diamond M, Couch JR, Lewis DW, Schmitt J, Neto W, Schwabe S, Jacobs D. Topiramate for migraine prevention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(8):965.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Silberstein SD, Neto W, Schmitt J, Jacobs D. Topiramate in migraine prevention: results of a large controlled trial. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(4):490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Linde M, Mulleners WM, Chronicle EP, McCrory DC. Topiramate for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD010610.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Linde M, Mulleners WM, Chronicle EP, McCrory DC. Valproate (valproic acid or sodium valproate or a combination of the two) for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD010611.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Silberstein SD, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults (Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society). Neurology. 2012;78:1337–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zvartau-Hind M, Din MU, Gilani A, et al. Topiramate relieves refractory trigeminal neuralgia in MS patients. Neurology. 2000;55:1587–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Domingues RB, Kuster GW, Aquino CC. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with low dose topiramate. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(3B):792–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wang QP, Bai M. Topiramate versus carbamazepine for the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia: a meta-analysis. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:847–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Al-Quliti KW. Update on neuropathic pain treatment for trigeminal neuralgia: the pharmacological and surgical options. Neurosciences. 2015;20(2):107–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Volcy M, Rapoport AM, Tepper SJ, et al. Persistent idiopathic facial pain responsive to topiramate. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Adelman J, Freitag FG, Lainez M, et al. Analysis of safety and tolerability data obtained from over 1,500 patients receiving topiramate for migraine prevention in controlled trials. Pain Med. 2008;9:175–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Silberstein SD. Topiramate in migraine prevention: a 2016 perspective. Headache. 2017;57:165–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Silberstein SD, Saper J, Berenson F, Somogyi M, McCague K, D’Souza J. Oxcarbazepine in migraine headache: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2008;70(7):548–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wiffen PJ, Collins S, McQuay HJ, Carroll D, Jadad A, Moore RA. Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD001133.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Toth M. The epsilon theory: a novel synthesis of the underlying molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms of primary generalized epilepsy and the possible mechanism of action of valproate. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(2):267–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cutrer FM, Limmroth V, Moskowitz MA. Possible mechanisms of valproate in migraine prophylaxis. Cephalalgia. 1997;17(2):93–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Evers S, Afra J, Frese A, Goadsby PJ, Linde M, May A, et al. European Federation of Neurological Societies. EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of migraine—revised report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(9):968–81.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kochar DK, Garg P, Bumb RA, Kochar SK, Mehta RD, Beniwal R, et al. Divalproex sodium in the management of post-herpetic neuralgia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. QJM. 2005;98(1):29–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kochar DK, Rawat N, Agrawal RP, Vyas A, Beniwal R, Kochar SK, et al. Sodium valproate for painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. QJM. 2004;97(1):33–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gill D, Derry S, Wiffen PJ, Moore RA. Valproic acid and sodium valproate for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):CD009183.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Green GA. Understanding NSAIDs: from aspirin to Cox-2. Clin Cornerstone. 2001;3(5):50–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brogan S, et al. Non-opiate analgesics. In: Hemmings H, Egan T, editors. Pharmacology and physiology for anesthesia: foundations and clinical application (Chapter 16). 1st ed. 2013. Saunders: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Minor J, Hofhines A. The discovery of aspirin’s antithrombotic effects. Tex Heart Inst J. 2007;34(2):179–86.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ta LE, Dionne RA. Treatment of painful temporomandibular joints with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized placebo-controlled comparison of celecoxib to naproxen. Pain. 2004;111(1–2):13–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Varoli F, et al. Analgesia evaluation of 2 NSAID drugs as adjuvant in management of chronic temporomandibular disorders. Sci World J. 2015;2015:359152.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Senye M, et al. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications for treatment of temporomandibular joint degenerative pain: a systematic review. J Orofac Pain. 2012;26(1):26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Page J, Henry D. Consumption of NSAIDs and the development of congestive heart failure in elderly patients: an underrecognized health problem. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(6):777–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Barnes P. How corticosteroids control inflammation: Quintiles Prize Lecture 2005. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;148(3):245–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Delecoeuillerie G, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis: a retrospective analysis of prognostic features and different corticosteroid regimens. Ann Rheum Dis. 1988;47(9):733–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lundberg I, Hedfors E. Restricted dose and duration of corticosteroid treatment in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis. J Rheumatol. 1990;17(10):1340–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jivraj I, Tamhankar M. The treatment of giant cell arteritis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2017;19(1):2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Beck RW, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. The OpticNeuritis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;326(9):581–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sellebjerg F, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of oral high-dose methylprednisolone in acute optic neuritis. Neurology. 1999;52(7):1479–984.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Smith JL, Taxdal DS. Painful ophthalmoplegia. The Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1966;61(6):1466–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hannerz J. Recurrent Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Cephalalgia. 1992;12(1):45–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cakirer S. MRI findings in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome before and after systemic corticosteroid therapy. Eur J Radiol. 2003;45(2):83–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zurawski J, Akhondi H. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome—a rare cause of headache and ophthalmoplegia. Lancet. 2013;382(9895):912.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lal V, et al. Ophthalmoplegia with migraine in adults: is it ophthalmoplegic migraine? Headache. 2009;49(6):838–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Proven A, et al. Glucocorticoid therapy in giant cell arteritis: duration and adverse outcomes. Arthritis Care Res. 2003;49(5):703–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fromm GH, et al. Baclofen in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: double-blind study and long-term follow-up. Ann Neurol. 1984;15:240–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yomiya K, et al. Baclofen as an adjuvant analgesic for cancer pain. Am J Hosp Palliat Med. 2009;26(2):112–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Saper JR, et al. Chronic daily headache prophylaxis with tizanidine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter outcome study. Headache. 2002;42:470–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fogelholm R, Murros K. Tizanidine in chronic tension type headache: a placebo controlled double blind crossover study. Headache. 1992;32:509–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Freitag FG. Preventative treatment for migraine and tension-type headaches: do drugs having effects on muscle spasm and tone have a role? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(6):373–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Aiyer R, et al. Treatment of neuropathic pain with venlafaxine: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2016;18(10):1999–2012.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smith HS, et al. Antidepressants as analgesics. In: Benzon H, Rathmell JP, editors. Practical management of pain (Chapter 38). 5th ed; 2014.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nagashima W, et al. Effectiveness of duloxetine for the treatment of chronic nonorganic facial pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35:273–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ito M, et al. Effectiveness of milnacipran for the treatment of chronic pain in the orofacial region. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:79–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Derry S, et al. Nortriptyline for neuropathic pain in adults (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(1):CD011209.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pettengill CA, Reisner-Keller L. The use of tricyclic antidepressants for the control of chronic orofacial pain. J Craniomandibular Pract. 1997;15(1):53–6.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Moore RA, et al. Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain in adults (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(7):CD008242.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Krymchantowski AV, et al. Topiramate plus nortriptyline in the preventive treatment of migraine: a controlled study for nonresponders. J Headache Pain. 2012;13:53–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jeon SH, et al. Effects of nortriptyline on QT prolongation: a safety pharmacology study. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30(10):1649–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Peppin JF, Albrecht PJ, Argoff C, et al. Skin matters: a review of topical treatments for chronic pain. Part Two: treatments and applications. Pain Therapy. 2015;4(1):33–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mohammadkarimi N, Jafari M, Mellat A, Kazemi E, Shirali A. Evaluation of efficacy of intra-nasal lidocaine for headache relief in patients refer to emergency department. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(4):331–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Robbins L. Intranasal lidocaine for cluster headache. Headache. 1995;35:83–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Costa A, Antonaci F, Ramusino MC, Nappi G. The neuropharmacology of cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015;13(3):304–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kern K-U, Nalamachu S, Brasseur L, Zakrzewska JM. Can treatment success with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster be predicted in cancer pain with neuropathic components or trigeminal neuropathic pain? J Pain Res. 2013;6:261–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Khawaja N, Yilmaz Z, Renton T. Case studies illustrating the management of trigeminal neuropathic pain using topical 5% lidocaine plasters. Br J Pain. 2013;7(2):107–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Medscape Mobile Application. Copyright WebMD, LLC, 1994-2016.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Marks DR, Rapoport A, Padla D, Weeks R, Rosum R, Sheftell F, Arrowsmith F. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intranasal capsaicin for cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 1993;13(2):114–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Matharu M. Cluster headache. BMJ Clin Evidence. 2010;2010:1212.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Szok D, Csáti A, Vécsei L, Tajti J. Treatment of chronic migraine with OnabotulinumtoxinA: mode of action, efficacy and safety. Toxins. 2015;7(7):2659–73.  https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7072659.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Finkel AG. Botulinum toxin and the treatment of headache: a clinical review. Toxicon. 2015;107(Pt A):114–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.09.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wang DW, Mistry AM, Kahlig KM, Kearney JA, Xiang J, George AL. Propranolol blocks cardiac and neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels. Front Pharmacol. 2010;1:144.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Antonaci F, Ghiotto N, Wu S, Pucci E, Costa A. Recent advances in migraine therapy. Springerplus. 2016;5:637.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Negoro K. Calcium antagonists in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Brain Nerve. 2009;61(10):1135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schrader H, Stovner LJ, Helde G, Sand T, Bovim G. Prophylactic treatment of migraine with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril): randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study. Br Med J. 2001;322(7277):19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Orr SL, Aubé M, Becker WJ, Davenport WJ, Dilli E, Dodick D, Giammarco R, Gladstone J, Leroux E, Pim H, Dickinson G, Christie SN. Canadian Headache Society systematic review and recommendations on the treatment of migraine pain in emergency settings. Cephalalgia. 2015;35(3):271–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;72(5):735–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Greco R, Mangione AS, Sandrini G, Nappi G, Tassorelli C. Activation of CB2 receptors as a potential therapeutic target for migraine: evaluation in an animal model. J Headache Pain. 2014;15(1):14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Fine PG, Rosenfeld MJ. The Endocannabinoid System, cannabinoids, and pain. Eisenberg E, Vulfsons S, editors. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013;4(4):e0022. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain.Google Scholar
  132. 132.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnathan H. Goree
    • 1
  • Christopher S. Fiedorek
    • 1
  • Ruben G. Alexander
    • 2
  • Boris Spektor
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations