Advertisement

The Iranian Reform Movement and the Iranian Women’s Movement: Feminism Interacted

  • Majid Mohammadi
Chapter

Abstract

Women have been one of the most important social groups in the Iranian reform movement. Iranian female university students, intellectuals, journalists and lawyers have raised the standards of political activism in Iran. Along with male university students, journalists, intellectuals and political activists, Iranian feminists, both religious and non-religious, are the core of this movement. After presenting a compendium of the structural and ideological gender inequalities in Iranian society, mostly in post-revolutionary era, the fifth chapter of the book provides basic information and analysis about Iranian feminists in the reform movement framework.

The chapter also reviews the relationship between Iranian feminism, on one hand, and the democratization process and demand for the vindication of civil rights of all Iranian citizens as the main issues of this movement, on the other. This review unfolds in three parts: the essence of Iranian feminism in post-revolutionary Iran; the interactions of women activists and other activists in this movement; and the impact of feminism on the Iranian reform movement.

Bibliography

  1. Abbasi, M.J., A. Mehryar, G. Jones, and P. McDonald. 2002. Revolution, War, and Modernization: Population Policy and Fertility Change in Iran. Journal of Population Research 19 (1): 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afary, Janet. 1996. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906–1911: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, and the Origins of Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Afkhami, Mahnaz, and Erika Friedl, eds. 1994. In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Post-Revolutionary Iran. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1997. Muslim Women and the Politics of Participation: Implementing the Beijing Platform. Gender, Culture and Politics in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Afshar, Haleh. 1998. Islam and Feminisms: An Iranian Case-Study. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Connell, R.W. 1987. Gender and Power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ebādi, Shirin. 1999. History and Documentation of Human Rights in Iran. Persian Studies Series, No. 18. New York: Bibliotheca Persica.Google Scholar
  8. Ferdows, Adele K. 1983. Women and the Islamic Republic. International Journal of Middle East Studies 15 (2): 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerami, Shahin. 1996. Women and Fundamentalism: Islam and Christianity. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Gould, Roger. 1993. Collective Action and Network Structure. American Sociological Review 58: 182–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoodfar, Homa. 1994. Devices and Desires: Population Policy and Gender Roles in the Islamic Republic. Middle East Report, No. 190. Gender, Population, Environment (September–October): 11–17.Google Scholar
  12. Husayni-e Tehrani, Seyyed Mohammad Husayn. 1994. Treatise on Marriage (Resāleh ye Nekāhieh). Mash-had: ‘Allāmeh ye Tabātabā’i Publication.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 1997. The Rarity Article (Resāleh ye Badi’eh). Mash-had: ‘Allāmeh ye Tabātabā’i Publication.Google Scholar
  14. Joseph, Suad. 1986. Women and Politics in the Middle East. MERIP Middle East Report, No. 138 (January–February): 3–7.Google Scholar
  15. Kar, Mehrangiz. 1999. Legal Structure of Family System in Iran. Tehran: Rowshangarān & Women Study Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2000. A Research About Violence Against Women in Iran. Tehran: Rowshangarān & Women Study Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2001. Women’s Strategies in Iran from the 1979 Revolution to 1999. In Globalization, Gender, and Religion: The Politics of Women’s Rights in Catholic and Muslim Contexts, ed. Jane Bayes and Nayereh Tohidi. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  18. Kian, Azadeh. 1997. Women and Politics in Post-Islamist Iran: The Gender Conscious Drive to Change. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 24 (1): 75–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McAdam, Doug. 1993. Specifying the Relationship Between Social Ties and Activism. American Journal of Sociology 99: 640–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mehrpour, Husayn. 2000. Current Issues on Women’s Rights from the Viewpoint of Domestic Law, Islamic Jurisprudence Principles and International Criteria. Tehran: Ettelā’āt Publication.Google Scholar
  21. Milani, Farzaneh. 1992. Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. 1999. Islam and Gender. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Moghadam, Valentine M. 1988. Women, Work, and Ideology in the Islamic Republic. International Journal of Middle East Studies 20 (2): 221–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. 1995. Gender and Revolutionary Transformation: Iran 1979 and East Central Europe 1989. Gender and Society 9 (3): 328–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ———. 2004. A Tale of Two Countries: State, Society, and Gender Politics in Iran and Afghanistan. The Muslim World 94 (4): 449–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moghissi, Haideh. 1996. Populism and Feminism in Iran: Women’s Struggle in a Male-Defined Revolutionary Movement. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1999. Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The Limits of Postmodern Analysis. London: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  28. Morris, Aldon. 1984. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Motahhari, Morteza. 1978. Nezām-e Hoqouq-eh Zan Dar Eslām (The System of Women’s Rights in Islam). Qum: Sadrā Publication.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 1988. The Islamic Modest Dress. Albuquerque: Abjad Book Designers & Producers.Google Scholar
  31. Najmabadi, Afsaneh. 1998. Feminism in an Islamic Republic: Years of Hardship, Years of Growth. In Gender, Islam and Social Change, ed. Yvonne Y. Haddad and John Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Nashat, Guity, and Lois Beck, eds. 2004. Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ortner, Sherry B. 1996. Making Gender: The Politics and Erotics of Culture. Boston: Bacon Press.Google Scholar
  34. Paidar, Parvin. 1997. Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Robnett, Belinda. 1996. African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1965: Gender, Leadership, and Micromobilization. American Journal of Sociology 101: 1661–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rosaldo, Michelle. 1980. The Use and Abuse of Anthropology: Reflections on Feminism and Cross Cultural Understanding. Signs 5 (3, Spring): 389–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sanasarian, Eliz. 1982. The Women’s Rights Movement in Iran: Mutiny, Appeasement, and Repression from 1900 to Khomeini. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. Shādi Talab, Zhāleh. 2002. Development and Iranian Women Challenges. Tehran: Qatreh.Google Scholar
  39. Shahidian, Hammed. 2002. Women in Iran: Emerging Voices in the Women’s Movement. Oxford: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  40. Smith, Steven G. 1992. Gender Thinking. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Spellman, Elizabeth V. 1988. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  42. Tabari, Azar. 1982. The Enigma of the Veiled Iranian Women. MERIP Reports (103, February): 22–27. The Politics of Religion.Google Scholar
  43. Walsh, Edward J., and Rex H. Warland. 1983. Social Movement Involvement in the Wake of a Nuclear Accident: Activists and Free Riders in the Three Mile Island Area. American Sociological Review 48: 764–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majid Mohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Radio Free EuropeStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations