The Iranian Reform Movement and Political Developments in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century

  • Majid Mohammadi


The second chapter reviews the political development that has been underway in Iranian society over the three decades from the late 1970s to the 2000s. It explains political development by considering three different and parallel processes: state-building; the development of political pluralism; and democratization. Although achieving democracy is the goal of a majority of Iranians, it is not clear what kind of democratic regime would be installed and what form it would take: a dual sovereignty, permanent civil disobedience, a unified social movement or another form of a guided democracy.


  1. Connolly, William E. 1995. The Ethos of Pluralization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  2. Dahl, Robert. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Heller-Wagner, Eric. 1995. Radical Religion and Civil Society: The Unitarians of South Africa. In Religion and Reconstruction of Civil Society, ed. J.W. De Gruchy and Martin Pretoria. Pretoria: University of South Africa.Google Scholar
  4. Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  5. Lipset, Seymour M. 1959. Some Social Prerequisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy. American Political Science Review 53 (1): 69–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Linz, J., and A. Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  7. O’Donnell, Guillermo, Philippe C. Shnitter, and Laurence Whitehead, eds. 1986. Transition from Authoritarian Rule; Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Parsons, Talcott. 1991. The Place of Ultimate Values in Sociological Theory. In The Early Essays, ed. Charles Camic and Talcott Parsons. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago. (The essay was originally published in 1935.)Google Scholar
  9. Poggi, Gianfranco. 1978. The Development of the Modern State: A Sociological Introduction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Soroush, Abdolkarim. 1993. Democratic Religious State. Kian 11: 12–15.Google Scholar
  11. Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1995. To Explain Political Processes. American Journal of Sociology 100 (6): 1594–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Walzer, M. 1995. The Concept of Civil Society. In Towards a Global Civil Society, ed. M. Walzer. Oxford: Berghahn Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majid Mohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Radio Free EuropeStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations