Protection: Defensible Spaces

  • Peter Lehr
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


In this chapter, I discuss passive and mostly ‘low-tech’ defences in the shape of barricades (i.e. counter-intrusion devices) and citadels (i.e. facilities hardened against terrorist or criminal attacks). After all, in my opinion, these modern avatars of time-honoured brick-and-mortar curtain walls still have a formidable role to play in the times of global terrorism: basically, they are our last line of defence against terrorists who have managed to evade all other high-tech measures described above without being detected and are now ready to strike. Hence, I will take a look at modern city walls such as the City of London’s ‘Ring of Steel’/Ring of Glass’, at modern citadels such as One World Trade Center in New York, and at barricades (temporarily) deployed to deny access to certain areas.


City wall Ring of steel Ring of glass Ring of plastic Citadels Residential communities Barricades Bollards Public Space 

General Bibliography

  1. Blamont M (2016) Paris beach festival will be fenced in after nice attack. i Paper/Reuters, 20 JulyGoogle Scholar
  2. Caldeira TPR (2000) City of walls: crime, segregation, and citizenship in são paulo. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  3. Coaffee J (2003) Terrorism, risk and the City. The making of a contemporary urban landscape. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  4. Coaffee J (2004) Recasting the ‘ring of steel’: designing out terrorism in the City of London? In: Graham S (ed) Cities, war, and terrorism. Towards an urban geopolitics. Blackwell, Malden, MA/Oxford, pp 276–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Creekmore AT (2014) The social production of space in third-millennium cities of upper Mesopotamia. In: Creekmore AT III, Fisher KD (eds) Making ancient cities: Space and Place in Early Urban Society. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 32–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Moncan P (2012) Le Paris d’Haussmann. Les Editions de Mécène, Paris (paperback)Google Scholar
  7. Dillon M (1996) 25 years of terror: IRA’s war against the British. Bantam Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Doll N (2016) Experten kritisieren unzureichende Schutzmassnahmen. Welt, Wirtschaft, 21 December.
  9. Flusty S (1994) Building paranoia: the proliferation of interdictory space and the Erosion of spatial justice. Forum for Architecture and Urban Design, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  10. Forster K (2017) London terror attack: security barriers installed on three bridges in capital. Independent, 5 June.
  11. Hunt AR, Kellerman KF (2000) Development of an analysis tool for performing civil aviation security risk assessment.
  12. Kaplan R (2000) The coming anarchy: shattering the dreams of the post cold war. Vintage Books, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kilcullen D (2016) Blood year: Islamic state and the failures of the war on terror. Hurst, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Marcuse P (2004) The ‘war on terrorism’ and life in cities after September 11, 2001. In: Graham S (ed) Cities, war, and terrorism. Towards an urban geopolitics. Blackwell, Malden/Oxford, pp 263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mumford L (1989) The City in history: its origins, its transformations, and its prospects. MJF Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Newman O (1972) Defensible space. People and Design in the Violent City. Architectural Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Tarantola A (2011) How to terror-proof the new world trade center. Gizmodocom, 9 September.
  18. Zheng P, Hall RD (2003) Pedestrian guard railing: a review of criteria for installation. Final report to transport of London. Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton October. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Lehr
    • 1
  1. 1.CSTPV, School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

Personalised recommendations