Reactions: The New (Para-) Military Urbanism

  • Peter Lehr
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


In this chapter I argue that the new wave of urban guerrillas needs to be countered by appropriate counter-measures by law enforcement, paramilitary and military forces who also have to move into cities in order to defend them. I start the chapter with a more detailed introduction into the art of Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP), commenting on the difficulties of protecting our open societies against modern forms of terrorism or ‘urban guerrilla warfare’. Next, I critically discuss the two basic (ideal type) models on how to respond to the terrorist threat: the Criminal Justice Model (CJM) and the War Model (WM). Drawing on riots in a number of French banlieues (suburbs) and on the London 2011 riots, I also point out that terrorists are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the outbreak of latent conflicts in modern urban sprawls. I conclude this section with a first brief look at the question of how far liberal democracies can go in order to respond to the terrorist threat.


Military urbanism Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Risk management, Criminal justice model War model Liberal democracies Law and terrorism 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Lehr
    • 1
  1. 1.CSTPV, School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsSt AndrewsUK

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