Adenosine Receptors: The Status of the Art

  • Stefania Gessi
  • Stefania MerighiEmail author
  • Katia Varani
Part of the The Receptors book series (REC, volume 34)


Adenosine is an ubiquitous molecule which is involved in the regulation of the function of every tissue and organ. This nucleoside mediates its effects through activation of a family of four G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors, namely, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Adenosine plays a significant role in the protection against cellular damage in the regions with high metabolism and prevents the subsequent dysfunction of the affected organs. Its levels rise during conditions concerning increased metabolic demand and/or lack of oxygen occurring in several pathological states like ischemia, stress, seizures, pain, diabetes, inflammation, cancer, and trauma, where it may behave like a guardian angel against cellular damage or may show its bad side in conditions deriving from its long-lasting increases responsible for chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and organ damage. The aim of this chapter is to offer an overview on the status of the art of the current drugs, agonists and antagonists, in clinical development.


Adenosine receptors Agonists Antagonists Clinical trials Human diseases 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefania Gessi
    • 1
  • Stefania Merighi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katia Varani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical SciencesUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly

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