Advertisement

The History, Developments and Opportunities of Stereolithography

  • Pamela Robles Martinez
  • Abdul W. Basit
  • Simon Gaisford
Chapter
Part of the AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series book series (AAPS, volume 31)

Abstract

Stereolithography (SLA) is an additive manufacturing technique that uses light as the source of energy. SLA 3D printing (3DP) was the first rapid prototyping method developed and perhaps the most popular due to its superior resolution and accuracy. Due to its versatility, SLA has been widely studied for its use in tissue engineering or in dentistry. In the pharmacoprinting field, SLA offers a great potential for fabricating complex drug delivery systems as well as approaching the need to manufacture personalised medicine. Despite this, research in the use of SLA 3DP in the pharmaceutical area is still limited. This chapter presents an overview of the fundamental science behind the photopolymerisation process and the SLA 3DP technologies available. A variety of its biomedical uses are presented. The multiple potential pharmaceutical applications and recent advances are reviewed, along with the advantages and limitations of this rapid prototyping technique for the manufacture of modern medicines.

Keywords

Three-dimensional printing Medical devices Bioprinting Personalized medications Pharmacoprinting Drug delivery systems 

References

  1. 1.
    Hull, C. W. Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography. US Patent 4,575,330 1–16 (1986).  https://doi.org/10.1145/634067.634234.
  2. 2.
    Chua CK, Leong KF, An J. Introduction to rapid prototyping of biomaterials. Rapid Prototyp Biomater Princ Appl. 2014:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857097217.1.
  3. 3.
    Kruth JP. Material Incress manufacturing by rapid prototyping techniques. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol. 1991;40:603–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pham D, Gault R. A comparison of rapid prototyping technologies. Int J Mach Tools Manuf. 1998;38:1257–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gardan J. Additive manufacturing technologies: state of the art and trends. Int J Prod Res. 2016;54:3118–32.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2015.1115909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vitale A, Cabral JT. Frontal conversion and uniformity in 3D printing by photopolymerisation. Materials (Basel). 2016;9:760–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goyanes A, Det-Amornrat U, Wang J, Basit AW, Gaisford S. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems. J Control Release. 2016;234:41–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goyanes A, Buanz ABM, Hatton GB, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015;89:157–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stansbury JW, Idacavage MJ. 3D printing with polymers: challenges among expanding options and opportunities. Dent Mater. 2016;32:54–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koslow T. 11 Best Resin (DLP/SLA) 3D printers in 2017 | All3DP. April 12 2017. Available at: https://all3dp.com/1/best-resin-dlp-sla-3d-printer-kit-stereolithography/#uncia-3d. Accessed 19 Oct 2017.
  11. 11.
    Systems, 3D. 3D systems: our story. 2013: 1–7. Available at: https://www.3dsystems.com/our-story?smtNoRedir=1&_ga=2.188103467.2074466491.1503585626-2013118968.1503585626. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
  12. 12.
    Kinematics Fold | Nervous System | Somerville. Available at: https://n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com/projects/albums/kinematics-fold/content/video-kinematics-fold/. Accessed 28 Mar 2018.
  13. 13.
    European Patent Office. Charles W. Hull (USA). Available at: https://www.epo.org/learning-events/european-inventor/finalists/2014/hull.html. Accessed 4 Sep 2017.
  14. 14.
    Markillie P. A third industrial revolution | the economist. De Economist. 2012;1 Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21552901. Accessed 14 Oct 2017.
  15. 15.
    Hegde M, et al. 3D printing all-aromatic polyimides using mask-projection stereolithography: processing the nonprocessable. Adv Mater. 2017;29:1701240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shapeways. WEB BANGLE (6MQRWHKA7) by JAXJEWELRY. Available at: https://www.shapeways.com/product/6MQRWHKA7/web-bangle?optionId=43536683&li=marketplace. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.
  17. 17.
    3D Architech | Under Armour | US. Available at: https://www.underarmour.com/en-us/3d-architech. Accessed 12 Sept 2017.
  18. 18.
    3ders.org – Chinese city of Nanjing gets first 3D printed bridge railings | 3D Printer News & 3D Printing News. Available at: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20170821-chinese-city-of-nanjing-gets-first-3d-printed-bridge-railings.html. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  19. 19.
    Keating SJ, Leland JC, Cai L, Oxman N. Toward site-specific and self-sufficient robotic fabrication on architectural scales. Sci Robot. 2017;2:eaam8986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    3ders.org – Russian spacewalking cosmonauts release world’s first 3D printed satellite from ISS | 3D Printer News & 3D Printing News. Available at: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20170817-russian-spacewalking-cosmonauts-release-worlds-first-3d-printed-satellite-from-iss.html. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  21. 21.
    Jang J, et al. 3D printed complex tissue construct using stem cell-laden decellularized extracellular matrix bioinks for cardiac repair. Biomaterials. 2017;112:264–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Graham AD, et al. High-resolution patterned cellular constructs by droplet-based 3D printing. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Atkins T, Escudier M. A dictionary of mechanical engineering: Oxford University Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Szilvśi-Nagy M, Mátyási G. Analysis of STL files. Math Comput Model. 2003;38:945–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Iancu C, Iancu D, Stăncioiu A. From CAD model to 3D print via‘ STL’ file format. Fiability Durab/Fiabilitate si Durab. 2010;1:73–80.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jin WL, Phung XL, Kim B, Lim G, Cho DW. Fabrication and characteristic analysis of a poly(propylene fumarate) scaffold using micro-stereolithography technology. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater. 2008;87:1–9.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tumbleston JR, et al. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects. Science. 2015;347:1349–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tehfe M, Louradour F, Lalevée J, Fouassier J-P. Photopolymerization reactions: on the way to a green and sustainable chemistry. Appl Sci. 2013;3:490–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fouassier JP, Lalevée J. Photoinitiators for polymer synthesis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012. p. 3–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527648245.ch1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raman R, Bashir R. Chapter 6 – Stereolithographic 3D bioprinting for biomedical applications. In: Essentials of 3D biofabrication and translation. San Diego: Elsevier; 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800972-7.00006-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bailey RA, et al. Chemistry of the environment. San Diego: Elsevier; 2002. p. 73–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012073461-0/50051-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fouassier JP, Lalevée J. Photoinitiators for polymer synthesis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012. p. 11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527648245.ch2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Milonni PW, Eberly JH. Laser physics. New York: Wiley; 2010. p. 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470409718.ch1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schnabel W. Polymers and light – fundamentals and technical applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2007.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527611027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fouassier JP, Allonas X, Laleve J, Dietlin C. Photochemistry and photophysics of polymer materials. Hoboken: Wiley; 2010. p. 351–419.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470594179.ch10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ravve A. Light-associated reactions of synthetic polymers. New York: Springer; 2006. p. 23–122.  https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-36414-5_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Colley CS, et al. Probing the reactivity of photoinitiators for free radical polymerization: time-resolved infrared spectroscopic study of benzoyl radicals. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:14952–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tseng S-J, et al. Controlled hydrogel photopolymerization inside live systems by X-ray irradiation. Soft Matter. 2012;8:1420–7.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c1sm06682j.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhong C, Wu J, Reinhart-King CA, Chu CC. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of photo-crosslinked maleic chitosan-polyethylene glycol diacrylate hybrid hydrogels. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:3908–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Melchels FPW, Feijen J, Grijpma DW. A poly(d,l-lactide) resin for the preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds by stereolithography. Biomaterials. 2009;30:3801–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.03.055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nuttelman CR, Henry SM, Anseth KS. Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, degradable poly(vinyl alcohol)-based tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2002;23:3617–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leach JB, Bivens KA, Patrick CW, Schmidt CE. Photocrosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels: natural, biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;82:578–89.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.10605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Torres-Lugo M, Peppas NA. Molecular design and in vitro studies of novel pH-sensitive hydrogels for the oral delivery of calcitonin. Macromolecules. 1999;32:6646–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cevik O, Gidon D, Kizilel S. Visible-light-induced synthesis of pH-responsive composite hydrogels for controlled delivery of the anticonvulsant drug pregabalin. Acta Biomater. 2015;11:151–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fairbanks BD, Schwartz MP, Bowman CN, Anseth KS. Photoinitiated polymerization of PEG-diacrylate with lithium phenyl-2, 4, 6- trimethylbenzoylphosphinate: polymerization rate and cytocompatibility. Biomaterials. 2009;30:6702–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nguyen AK, et al. Two-photon polymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate scaffolds with riboflavin and triethanolamine used as a water-soluble photoinitiator. Regen Med. 2013;8:725–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kang H-W, Cho D-W. Development of an indirect stereolithography technology for scaffold fabrication with a wide range of biomaterial selectivity. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2012;18:719–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ahmad I, et al. Photoinitiated polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by riboflavin/triethanolamine in aqueous solution: a kinetic study. ISRN Pharm. 2013;2013:958712.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nguyen KT, West JL. Photopolymerizable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials. 2002;23:4307–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Martinez PR, Goyanes A, Basit AW, Gaisford S. Fabrication of drug-loaded hydrogels with stereolithographic 3D printing. Int J Pharm. 2017;532:313–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.09.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kim S, Chu C-C. Visible light induced dextran-methacrylate hydrogel formation using (−)-riboflavin vitamin B2 as a photoinitiator and L-arginine as a co-initiator. Fibers Polym. 2009;10:14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams CG, Malik AN, Kim TK, Manson PN, Elisseeff JH. Variable cytocompatibility of six cell lines with photoinitiators used for polymerizing hydrogels and cell encapsulation. Biomaterials. 2005;26:1211–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Orellana B, Rufs AM, Encinas MV, Previtali CM, Bertolotti S. The photoinitiation mechanism of vinyl polymerization by riboflavin/triethanolamine in aqueous medium. Macromolecules. 1999;32:6570–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bertolotti SG, Previtali CM, Rufs AM, Encinas MV. Riboflavin/triethanolamine as photoinitiator system of vinyl polymerization. A mechanistic study by laser flash photolysis. Macromolecules. 1999;32:2920–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Encinas MV, Rufs AM, Bertolotti S, Previtali CM. Free radical polymerization photoinitiated by riboflavin/amines. Effect of the amine structure. Macromolecules. 2001:2845–7.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ma001649r.
  56. 56.
    Grund S, Bauer M, Fischer D. Polymers in drug delivery-state of the art and future trends. Adv Eng Mater. 2011;13:B61–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chia HN, Wu BM. Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. J Biol Eng. 2015;9:4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Oskui SM, et al. Assessing and reducing the toxicity of 3D-printed parts. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2016;3:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang N, et al. Synthesis of degradable functional poly(ethylene glycol) analogs as versatile drug delivery carriers. Macromol Biosci. 2007;7:1187–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yu J, et al. In situ covalently cross-linked PEG hydrogel for ocular drug delivery applications. Int J Pharm. 2014;470:151–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Drury JL, Mooney DJ. Hydrogels for tissue engineering: scaffold design variables and applications. Biomaterials. 2003;24:4337–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cruise GM, Scharp DS, Hubbell JA. Characterization of permeability and network structure of interfacially photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels. Biomaterials. 1998;19:1287–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leach JB, Schmidt CE. Characterization of protein release from photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid-polyethylene glycol hydrogel tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2005;26:125–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vehse M, Petersen S, Sternberg K, Schmitz KP, Seitz H. Drug delivery from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate scaffolds produced by DLC based micro-stereolithography. Macromol Symp. 2014;346:43–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mellott MB, Searcy K, Pishko MV. Release of protein from highly cross-linked hydrogels of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate fabricated by UV polymerization. Biomaterials. 2001;22:929–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Arcaute K, Mann BK, Wicker RB. Stereolithography of three-dimensional bioactive poly(ethylene glycol) constructs with encapsulated cells. Ann Biomed Eng. 2006;34:1429–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dhariwala B, Hunt E, Boland T. Rapid prototyping of tissue-engineering constructs, using photopolymerizable hydrogels and stereolithography. Tissue Eng. 2004;10:1316–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gou M, et al. Bio-inspired detoxification using 3D-printed hydrogel nanocomposites. Nat Commun. 2014;5:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mapili G, Lu Y, Chen S, Roy K. Laser-layered microfabrication of spatially patterned functionalized tissue-engineering scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater. 2005;75:414–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Placone JK, et al. Development and characterization of a 3D printed, keratin-based hydrogel. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017;45:237–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wang J, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing of oral modified-release dosage forms. Int J Pharm. 2016;503:207–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Food and Drug Administration. Department of health & human services. Approved Premarket Notification: Dentca Denture Base II. 510(k) number K160244. 2017. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf16/K162044.pdf. Accesed 24 Aug 2017.
  73. 73.
    DENTCA. DENTCA 3D Printed Denture | Dentca. (2016). Available at: https://www.dentca.com/products/dentca-3d. Accessed 22 Aug 2017.
  74. 74.
    Food and Drug Administration. Department of health & human services. Approved Premarket Notification: Dentca denture base. 510(k) Number K143033. 2015. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf14/K143033.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2017.
  75. 75.
    Food and Drug Administration. Department of health & human services. Approved Premarket Notification: NextDent™ Denture/E-Denture. 510(k) Number K162572. 2017. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf16/K162572.pdf. Accesed 24 Aug 2017.
  76. 76.
    Sharma R. The 3D printing revolution you have not heard about. In: Forbes.2013. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rakeshsharma/2013/07/08/the-3d-printing-revolution-you-have-not-heard-about/#33bacc131a6b. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  77. 77.
    ENVISIONTEC INC. 3D Printed Hearing Aid Shells, Molds, Inner-Ear Devices | EnvisionTEC. Available at: https://envisiontec.com/3d-printing-industries/medical/hearing-aid/. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  78. 78.
    Di Prima M, et al. Additively manufactured medical products – the FDA perspective. 3D Print Med. 2015;2:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Trenfield SJ, Awad A, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D printing pharmaceuticals: drug development to frontline care. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018;39(5):440–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Goole J, Amighi K. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: a new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm. 2016;499(1–2):376–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Awad A, Trenfield SJ, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D printed medicines: A new branch of digital healthcare. Int J Pharm. 2018;548(1):586–96.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Awad A, Trenfield SJ, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. Reshaping drug development using 3D printing. Drug Discov Today. 2018;  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.05.025.
  83. 83.
    Larush L, Kaner I, Fluksman A, Tamsut A, Pawar AA. 3D printing of responsive hydrogels for drug-delivery systems. J 3D Print Med. 2017;1:219–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kwon IK, Matsuda T. Photo-polymerized microarchitectural constructs prepared by microstereolithography (μSL) using liquid acrylate-end-capped trimethylene carbonate-based prepolymers. Biomaterials. 2005;26:1675–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Martinez PR, Goyanes A, Basit AW, Gaisford S. Influence of geometry on the drug release profiles of stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printed tablets. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2018;  https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-1075-3.
  86. 86.
    Miller PR, et al. Integrated carbon fiber electrodes within hollow polymer microneedles for transdermal electrochemical sensing. Biomicrofluidics. 2011;5:13415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Matsuda T, Mizutani M. Liquid acrylate-endcapped biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-trimethylene carbonate). II. Computer-aided stereolithographic microarchitectural surface photoconstructs. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;62:395–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Popov VK, et al. Laser stereolithography and supercritical fluid processing for custom-designed implant fabrication. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004;15:123–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Inoue Y, Ikuta K. Detoxification of the photoeurable polymer by heat treatment for microstereolithography. Procedia CIRP. 2013;5:115–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mazzoccoli JP, Feke DL, Baskaran H, Pintauro PN. Mechanical and cell viability properties of crosslinked low- and high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate blends. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;93:558–66.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela Robles Martinez
    • 1
  • Abdul W. Basit
    • 1
    • 2
  • Simon Gaisford
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of PharmacyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.FabRx Ltd.Ashford, KentUK

Personalised recommendations