Advertisement

Spontaneous Uterine Rupture During Pregnancy

  • Andrea Tinelli
  • Ospan A. Mynbaev
  • Michael Stark
  • Radmila Sparic
  • Sasa Kadija
  • Sandro Gerli
  • Antonio Malvasi
Chapter

Abstract

Uterine rupture is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening obstetrical emergency, occurring in 1 on 1200 to 1 on 5000 deliveries. It is more frequent in developing countries and in low-resource area. Rupture of the uterus in women without a history of cesarean section is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.02%. Incidence of uterine rupture is affected by the level of medical care and the presence of scar in the uterus. While asymptomatic uterine dehiscence rarely results in adverse fetal outcome, the complete uterine rupture with extrusion of the placenta or the fetus in the abdomen can be catastrophic. Generally, uterine rupture refers to a complete separation of all uterine layers, including the uterine serosa. It threatens the life of both the mother and fetus, with devastating maternal complications, including need for blood transfusion, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and peripartum hysterectomy. Maternal mortality is 0.44%, and it resulted from hemorrhage, shock, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary embolism, ileus paralyticus, peritonitis, and renal failure.

Fetus may experience lifelong consequences, especially newborns, with lower Apgar scores and at higher risk for peripartum mortality: The perinatal mortality after uterine rupture is reported as ranging from 74% to 92%, in less developed countries.

Uterine rupture generally occurs in women with previous cesarean section, during labor, or in patients with a scarred uterus.

The risk factors are probably sequential labor induction, second-stage dystocia, labor augmentation, preterm delivery, delivery after 42nd gestational week, grand multiparity, previous uterine manipulations (such as curettage), instrumental delivery and external trauma, and fetal malpresentation.

Initial treatment in a case of uterine rupture should be aimed at stabilization of the patient, with aggressive replacement of fluid with crystalloid and blood products. Early diagnosis and deciding to proceed with surgical intervention can be lifesaving. The aim of management should be to stop the hemorrhage, repair the anatomic damage, and reduce morbidity with surgical repair or a hysterectomy, depending on several factors such as the size of the uterine defects, patient age, and comorbidities.

Keywords

Uterine rupture Obstetric complications Myomectomy Cesarean section Obstructed labor Malpresentation 

References

  1. 1.
    Tinelli A. Uterine rupture: up to date. JDReAM. 2017;1(1):61–74.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dane B, Dane C. Maternal death after uterine rupture in an unscarred uterus: a case report. J Emerg Med. 2009;37(4):393–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berhe Y, Wall LL. Uterine rupture in resource-poor countries. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2014;69(11):695–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hofmeyr GJ, Say L, Gülmezoglu AM. Systematic review: WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity: the prevalence of uterine rupture. BJOG. 2005;112(9):1221–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Turner MJ. Uterine rupture. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;16(1):69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Zirqi I, Stray-Pedersen B, Forsen L, Daltveit A, Vangen S. Uterine rupture: trends over 40 years. BJOG. 2016;123(5):780–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gibbins KJ, Weber T, Holmgren CM, Porter TF, Varner MW, Manuck TA. Maternal and fetal morbidity associated with uterine rupture of the unscarred uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;213(3):382.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sun HD, Su WH, Chang WH, Wen L, Huang BS, Wang PH. Rupture of a pregnant unscarred uterus in an early secondary trimester: a case report and brief review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38(2):442–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walsh CA, O'Sullivan RJ, Foley ME. Unexplained prelabor uterine rupture in a term primigravida. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(3 Pt 2):725–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ofir K, Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, Mazor M. Uterine rupture: differences between a scarred and an unscarred uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191(2):425–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zwart JJ, Richters JM, Öry F, de Vries JI, Bloemenkamp KW, van Roosmalen J. Uterine rupture in the Netherlands: a nationwide population-based cohort study. BJOG. 2009;116(8):1069–78. discussion 1078–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Egbe TO, Halle-Ekane GE, Tchente CN, Nyemb JE, Belley-Priso E. Management of uterine rupture: a case report and review of the literature. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9(1):492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Teguete I, Dolo A, Sissoko A, Thera A, Traore M, Djire MY, et al. Determining factors of cesarean delivery trends in developing countries: lessons from point G National Hospital (Bamako-Mali). Croatia: INTECH Open Access; 2012. p. 161–202.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sparić R, Kadija S, Tadić J, Dokić M, Milenković V. Intrapartal resection of the bicornuete uterus for placenta membranacea percreta. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2007;135(1–2):85–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Halperin ME, Moore DC, Hannah WJ. Classical versus low-segment transverse incision for preterm caesarean section: maternal complications and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988;95(10):990–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landon MB, Lynch CD. Optimal timing and mode of delivery after cesarean with previous classical incision or myomectomy: a review of the data. Semin Perinatol. 2011;35(5):257–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Surico D, Amadori R, Vigone A, D'Agostino C, Dessole M, Surico N. Successful delivery after surgical repair of uterine rupture at 15 weeks of gestation: case report and brief review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;204:5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eze JN, Anozie OB, Lawani OL, Ndukwe EO, Agwu UM, Obuna JA. Evaluation of obstetricians' surgical decision making in the management of uterine rupture. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017;17(1):179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCarthy F, Germain S. Connective tissue disorders and dermatological disordres in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2013;23(3):71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Al Qarni AA, Al-Braikan N, Al-Hanbali MM, Alharmaly AH. Rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 31 week. Saudi Med J. 2017;38(2):201–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bujold E, Mehta SH, Bujold C, Gauthier RJ. Interdelivery interval and uterine rupture. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(5):1199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stamilio DM, DeFranco E, Paré E, Odibo AO, Peipert JF, Allsworth JE, et al. Short interpregnancy interval: risk of uterine rupture and complications of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(5):1075–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bujold E, Gauthier RJ. Risk of uterine rupture associated with an interdelivery interval between 18 and 24 months. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(5):1003–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Uccella S, Cromi A, Bogani G, Zaffaroni E, Ghezzi F. Spontaneous prelabor uterine rupture in a primigravida: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205(5):e6–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mittal S, Misra SL. Uterine perforation following medical termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1985;23(1):45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grindler NM, Ng J, Tocce K, Alvero R. Considerations for management of interstitial ectopic pregnancies: two case reports. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10(1):106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bamigboye AA, Hofmeyr GJ. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section: short- and long-term outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD000163.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Malvasi A, Tinelli A, Farine D, Rahimi S, Cavallotti C, Vergara D, et al. Effects of visceral peritoneal closure on scar formation at cesarean delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105(2):131–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malvasi A, Tinelli A, Guido M, Cavallotti C, Dell'Edera D, Zizza A, et al. Effect of avoiding bladder flap formation in caesarean section on repeat caesarean delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159(2):300–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malvasi A, Tinelli A, Cavallotti C, Bettocchi S, Di Renzo GC, Stark M. Substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the lower uterine segment in first and repeated cesarean sections. Peptides. 2010;31(11):2052–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Di Tommaso S, Cavallotti C, Malvasi A, Vergara D, Rizzello A, De Nuccio F, et al. A qualitative and quantitative study of the innervation of the human non pregnant uterus. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;18(2):140–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Malvasi A, Cavallotti C, Gustapane S, Giacci F, Di Tommaso S, Vergara D, et al. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expression in the uterine scar after cesarean section. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;18(2):175–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malvasi A, Cavallotti C, Resta L, Mynbaev OA, Di Tommaso S, Vergara D, et al. Laminin and collagen IV: two polypeptides as marker of dystocic labor. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;18(2):149–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stanirowski PJ, Trojanowski S, Słomka A, Cendrowski K, Sawicki W. Spontaneous rupture of the pregnant uterus following salpingectomy: a literature review. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 2015;80(2):73–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Api O, Balcin ME, Ugurel V, Api M, Turan C, Unal O. The effect of uterine fundal pressure on the duration of the second stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(3):320–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Verheijen EC, Raven JH, Hofmeyr GJ. Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(4):CD006067.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buhimschi CS, Buhimschi IA, Malinow AM, Kopelman JN, Weiner CP. The effect of fundal pressure manoeuvre on intrauterine pressure in the second stage of labour. BJOG. 2002;109(5):520–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nikolaou M, Kourea HP, Antonopoulos K, Geronatsio K, Adonakis G, Decavalas G. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a primigravid woman in the early third trimester attributed to adenomyosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39(3):727–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nagao Y, Osato K, Kubo M, Kawamura T, Ikeda T, Yamawaki T. Spontaneous uterine rupture in the 35th week of gestation after laparoscopic adenomyomectomy. Int Med Case Rep J. 2015;9:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morimatsu Y, Matsubara S, Okuchi A, et al. Pregnancy after adenomyomectomy—literature review of uterine rupture and obstetrical management. Japan J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;74(9):1047–53.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Agarwal R, Gupta B, Radhakrishnan G. Rupture of intrapartum unscarred uterus at the fundus: a complication of passive cocaine abuse? Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283(Suppl 1):53–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Palmer JM, Indermaur MD, Tebes CC, Spellacy WN. Placenta increta and cocaine abuse in a grand multipara leading to a second trimester rupture of an unscarred uterus: a case report. South Med J. 2008;101(8):834–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rajiah P, Eastwood KL, Gunn ML, Dighe M. Uterine diverticulum. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(2 Pt 2):525–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yap FY, Radin R, Tchelepi H. Torsion, infarction, and rupture of a nongravid uterus: a complication of a large ovarian cyst. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2016;41(12):2359–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sparić R, Pervulov M, Stefanović A, Tadić J, Gojnić M, Milićević S, Berisavac M. Uterine torsion in term pregnancy. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2007;135(9–10):572–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jeong YY, Kang HK, Park JG, Choi HS. CT features of uterine torsion. Eur Radiol. 2003;13(Suppl 6):L249–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Luk SY, Leung JL, Cheung ML, So S, Fung SH, Cheng SC. Torsion of a nongravid myomatous uterus: radiological features and literature review. Hong Kong Med J. 2010;16(4):304–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garnet JD. Rupture of the uterus in pregnancy. Postgrad Med. 1964;36:28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koo YJ, Lee JK, Lee YK, Kwak DW, Lee IH, Lim KT, Lee KH, Kim TJ. Pregnancy outcomes and risk factors for uterine rupture after laparoscopic myomectomy: a single-center experience and literature review. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2015;22(6):1022–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gambacorti-Passerini Z, Gimovsky AC, Locatelli A, Berghella V. Trial of labor after myomectomy and uterine rupture: a systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016;95(7):724–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Barakat EE, Bedaiwy MA, Zimberg S, Nutter B, Nosseir M, Falcone T. Robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and abdominal myomectomy: a comparison of surgical outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117(2 Pt 1):256–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sizzi O, Rossetti A, Malzoni M, Minelli L, La Grotta F, Soranna L, Panuzi S, Spagnolo R, Imperato F, Landi S, Fiaccamento A, Stola A. Italian multicenter study on complications of laparoscopic myomectomy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007;14(4):453–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Seracchioli R, Manuzzi L, Vianello F, Gualerzi B, Paradisi R, Venturoli S. Obstetric and delivery outcome of pregnancies achieved after laparoscopic myomectomy. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(1):159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dubuisson JB, Fauconnier A, Deffarges JV, Norgaard C, Kreiker G, Chapron C. Pregnancy outcome and deliveries following laparoscopic myomectomy. Hum Reprod. 2000;15(4):869–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sparić R, Malvasi A, Kadija S, Babović I, Nejković L, Tinelli A. Cesarean myomectomy trends and controversies: an appraisal. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017;30(9):1114–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pistofidis G, Makrakis E, Balinakos P, Dimitriou E, Bardis N, Anaf V. Report of 7 uterine rupture cases after laparoscopic myomectomy: update of the literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2012;19(6):762–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tinelli A. Concepts and thoughts about modern uterine intramural and subserosal myomectomy. Int J Gynecol Obstet Neonat Care. 2017;4:11–9.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Parker WH, Einarsson J, Istre O, Dubuisson JB. Risk factors for uterine rupture after laparoscopic myomectomy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010;17(5):551–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tinelli A, Malvasi A, Gustapane S, Buscarini M, Gill IS, Stark M, Nezhat FR, Mettler L. Robotic assisted surgery in gynecology: current insights and future perspectives. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2011;5(1):12–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pitter MC, Gargiulo AR, Bonaventura LM, Lehman JS, Srouji SS. Pregnancy outcomes following robot-assisted myomectomy. Hum Reprod. 2013;28(1):99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Abbas AM, Sheha AM, Ali MK, Ali SS, Salem NZ, Talaat E, Hassan A. Second-trimester spontaneous uterine rupture after laparoscopic electromyolysis in nulligravida: a case report. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2017;22:73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tinelli A, Mynbaev OA, Sparić R, Vergara D, Di Tommaso S, Salzet M, Maffia M, Malvasi A. Angiogenesis and vascularization of uterine leiomyoma: clinical value of pseudocapsule containing peptides and neurotransmitters. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;18(2):129–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tinelli A, Malvasi A. Uterine fibroid pseudocapsule. In: Tinelli A, Malvasi A, editors. Uterine myoma, myomectomy and minimally invasive treatments. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publisher; 2015. p. 73–93.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hagneré P, Denoual I, Souissi A, Deswarte S. Spontaneous uterine rupture after myomectomy. Case report and review of the literature. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2011;40(2):162–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Abdalla N, Reinholz-Jaskolska M, Bachanek M, Cendrowski K, Stanczak R, Sawicki W. Hemoperitoneum in a patient with spontaneous rupture of the posterior wall of an unscarred uterus in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tinelli A, Di Renzo GC, Malvasi A. The intrapartum ultrasonographic detection of the Bandl ring as a marker of dystocia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015;131(3):310–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sweeten KM, Graves WK, Athanassiou A. Spontaneous rupture of the unscarred uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172(6):1851–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carlin A, Alfirevic Z. Intrapartum fetal emergencies. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;11(3):150–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Endres LK, Barnhart K. Spontaneous second trimester uterine rupture after classical cesarean. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;6(5 Pt 2):806–8.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ijaz S, Mahendru A, Sanderson D. Spontaneous uterine rupture during the 1st trimester: a rare but life-threatening emergency. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;31(8):772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sun CH, Liao CI, Kan YY. “Silent” rupture of unscarred gravid uterus with subsequent pelvic abscess: successful laparoscopic management. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005;12(6):519–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Iemura A, Kondoh E, Kawasaki K, Fujita K, Ueda A, Mogami H, Baba T, Konishi I. Expectant management of a herniated amniotic sac presenting as silent uterine rupture: a case report and literature review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(1):106–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tola EN. First trimester spontaneous uterine rupture in a young woman with uterine anomaly. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014;2014:967386.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mazzone ME, Woolever J. Uterine rupture in a patient with an unscarred uterus: a case study. WMJ. 2006;105(2):64–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Berisavac M, Sparić R, Pervulov M, Arsenijević L, Spremović Radjenović S, Vrzić Petronijević S, Marković N, Milićević S. Spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in twin pregnancy-case report. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2008;136(5–6):299–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Williamson H, Indusekhar R, Clark A, Hassan IM. Spontaneous severe haemoperitoneum in the third trimester leading to intrauterine death: case report. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:173097.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Agdi M, Tulandi T. Surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;23(4):519–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Guseh S, Carusi D, Tinelli A, Gargiulo A. Spontaneous uterine rupture prior to twenty weeks of gestation. In: Malvasi A, Tinelli A, Di Renzo GC, editors. Management and therapy of early pregnancy complications. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publisher; 2016. p. 255–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sparić R, Mirković L, Ravilić U, Janjić T. Obstetric complications of placenta praevia percreta. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2014;71(12):1163–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vyjayanthi S, Rajesh U, Bloomfield TH. Haemoperitoneum due to placenta percreta in the third trimester mimicking placental abruption. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22(6):690–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Groen GP. Uterine rupture in rural Nigeria: review of 144 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1974;44(5):682–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gessessew A, Melese MM. Ruptured uterus: eight year retrospective analysis of causes and management outcome in Adigrat Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2002;16(3):241–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bedi DG, Salmon A, Winsett MZ, Fagan CJ, Kumar R. Ruptured uterus: sonographic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 1986;14(7):529–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bujold E, Jastrow N, Simoneau J, Brunet S, Gauthier RJ. Prediction of complete uterine rupture by sonographic evaluation of the lower uterine segment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201(3):320.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kok N, Wiersma IC, Opmeer BC, de Graaf IM, Mol BW, Pajkrt E. Sonographic measurement of lower uterine segment thickness to predict uterine rupture during a trial of labor in women with previous cesarean section: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;42(2):132–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fukuda M, Fukuda K, Shimizu T, Bujold E. Ultrasound assessment of lower uterine segment thickness during pregnancy, labour, and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016;38(2):134–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Barzilay E, Shay A, Lahav-Ezra H, Shina A, Perlman S, Achiron R, Gilboa Y. Sonographic assessment of the lower uterine segment during active labor in women with or without a uterine scar—a prospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017:1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017. [Epub ahead of print].
  88. 88.
    Lazarus E, Mayo-Smith WW, Mainiero MB, Spencer PK. CT in the evaluation of nontraumatic abdominal pain in pregnant women. Radiology. 2007;244(3):784–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hruska KM, Coughlin BF, Coggins AA, Wiczyk HP. MRI diagnosis of spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus. Emerg Radiol. 2006;12(4):186–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vlemminx MW, de Lau H, Oei SG. Tocogram characteristics of uterine rupture: a systematic review. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295(1):17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hill CC, Pickinpaugh J. Trauma and surgical emergencies in the obstetric patient. Surg Clin North Am. 2008;88(2):421–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vaknin Z, Maymon R, Mendlovic S, Barel O, Herman A, Sherman D. Clinical, sonographic, and epidemiologic features of second- and early third-trimester spontaneous antepartum uterine rupture: a cohort study. Prenat Diagn. 2008;28(6):478–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dow M, Wax JR, Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Cartin A. Third-trimester uterine rupture without previous cesarean: a case series and review of the literature. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(10):739–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Damiani GR, Gaetani M, Landi S, Lacerenza L, Barnaba M, Spellecchia D, Pellegrino A. Uterine rupture in a nulliparous woman with septate uterus of the second trimester pregnancy and review in literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2013;4(3):259–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ofir K, Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, Mazor M. Uterine rupture: risk factors and pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(4):1042–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ritchie EH. Pregnancy after rupture of the pregnant uterus. A report of 36 pregnancies and a study of cases reported since 1932. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1971;78(7):642–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tversky A, Kahneman D. Belief in the law of small numbers. Psychol Bull. 1971;76(2):105–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Tinelli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ospan A. Mynbaev
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael Stark
    • 5
  • Radmila Sparic
    • 6
    • 7
  • Sasa Kadija
    • 6
  • Sandro Gerli
    • 6
  • Antonio Malvasi
    • 2
    • 8
  1. 1.Division of Experimental Endoscopic Surgery, Imaging, Technology and Minimally Invasive Therapy, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyVito Fazzi HospitalLecceItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Human Physiology, Phystech BioMed School, Faculty of Biological and Medical PhysicsMoscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)Moscow RegionRussia
  3. 3.Division of Molecular TechnologiesResearch Institute of Translational Medicine, N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RASMoscowRussia
  5. 5.New European Surgical AcademyBerlinGermany
  6. 6.Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Centre of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia
  7. 7.Medical FacultyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  8. 8.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Santa Maria Hospital GVM Care and ResearchBariItaly

Personalised recommendations