The Role of Biodiversity and Plant Conservation for Ornamental Breeding

  • Chunlin LongEmail author
  • Zhe Chen
  • Ying Zhou
  • Bo Long
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 11)


In this chapter, the world’s plant biodiversity is briefly introduced. It is estimated that there are 340,000–390,900 species of vascular plants in 452 families on the earth based on biodiversity informatics analysis. The species number of ornamental plants and their wild relatives is estimated to be 85,000–99,000. Four strategies to conserve ornamental plants can be distinguished, namely, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, sustainable uses, and legal system establishment. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international legal systems, together with national or local laws and regulations, are mainstreaming the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable uses of biological resources. The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization will profoundly affect the collection, breeding, and commercialization of ornamental plants around the world. New technologies as genome sequencing accelerate our understanding of plant genetic diversity and will enhance breeding and development of ornamental plants.


World plant species Ornamental plants Conservation Nagoya Protocol 


  1. Bailey LH, Bailey EZ (1976) Hortus third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Brickell C (2008) Encyclopedia of garden plants, 3rd edn. Dorling Kindersley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Byg A, Balslev H (2006) Palms in indigenous and settler communities in southeastern Ecuador: farmers’ perceptions and cultivation practices. Agrofor Syst 67:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai J, Liu X, Vanneste K, Proost S, Tsai WC, Liu KW, Chen LJ, He Y, Xu Q, Bian C, Zheng Z, Sun F, Liu W, Hsiao YY, Pan ZJ, Hsu CC, Yang YP, Hsu YC, Chuang YC, Dievart A, Dufayard JF, Xu X, Wang JY, Wang J, Xiao XJ, Zhao XM, Du R, Zhang GQ, Wang MN, Su YY, Xie GC, Liu GH, Li LQ, LQ LYB, Chen HH, Van de Peer Y, Liu ZJ (2015) The genome sequence of the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. Nat Genet 47:65–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen JY (2000) Classification system for Chinese flower cultivars. China Forestry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen HB, Zhang FJ, Ruan ZP, Chen RS (2013) Ornamental climbing plants. Huazhong University of Science & Technology Press, WuhanGoogle Scholar
  7. Darbyshire I, Anderson S, Asatryan A, Byfield A, Cheek M, Clubbe C, Ghrabi Z, Harris T, Heatubun CD, Kalema J, Magassouba S, McCarthy B, Milliken W, de Montmollin B, Lughadha EN, Onana J, Saïdou D, Sârbu A, Shrestha KK, Radford EA (2017) Important plant areas: revised selection criteria for a global approach to plant conservation. Biodivers Conserv 26(8):1767–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dirr MA (2008) Manual of woody landscape plants, 8th edn. Stipes Publishing, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  9. Foucher F, Hibrand-Saint Oyant L, Hamama L, Sakr S, Nybom H, Baudino S, Caissard JP, Byrne DM, Smulder JMS, Desnoyé B, Debener T, Bruneau A, De Riek J, Matsumoto S, Torres A, Millan T, Amaya I, Yamada K, Wincker P, Zamir D, Gouzy J, Sargent D, Bendahmane M, Raymond O, Vergne P, Dubois A, Just J (2015) Towards the rose genome sequence and its use in research and breeding. Acta Hortic 1064:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamilton AC, Karamura D, Kakudidi E (2016) History and conservation of wild and cultivated plant diversity in Uganda: forest species and banana varieties as case studies. Plant Divers 38(1):23–24CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Huang HW (2011) Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 166: 282–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang TC, Long CL (2011) Priorities for genetic resource collection and preservation of wild gymnosperms in Yunnan: an analysis based on the “3E” principle. Biodivers Sci 19(3):319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue ML (2008) Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach, 3rd edn. Sinauer Associates, Inc, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  14. Li CX, Miao XY (2016) Notes on the rank of China in the world in terms of higher plant diversity. Biodivers Sci 24(6):725–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu X (2015) The science report on biological germplasm resources in China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  16. Long CL, Zhou YL (2001) Indigenous community forest management in Jinuo people’s swidden agroecosystems in SW China. Biodivers Conserv 10(5):756–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Long CL, Ni YN, Long B, Zhang XB, Xin T (2015) Biodiversity of Chinese ornamentals. Acta Hortic 1087:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Long CL, Long B, Bai YJ, Lei QY, Li JQ, Liu B (2017) Indigenous people’s ornamentals for future gardens. Acta Hortic 1167:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma KP (2014) Rapid development of biodiversity informatics in China. Biodivers Sci 22(3):251–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Olson DM, Dinerstein E (1998) The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conserv Biol 12:502–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED, Burgess ND, Powell GVN, Underwood EC, D’Amico JA, Itoua I, Strand HE, Morrison JC, Loucks CJ, Allnutt TF, Ricketts TH, Kura Y, Lamoreux JF, Wettengel WW, Hedao P, Kassem KR (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. RBG Kew (2016) The state of the world’s plants report – 2016. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  23. RBG Kew (2017) The state of the world’s plants report – 2017. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  24. Roskov Y, Abucay L, Orrell T, Nicolson D, Bailly N, Kirk PM, Bourgoin T, DeWalt RE, Decock W, De Wever A, Nieukerken E van, Zarucchi J, Penev L (eds) (2017) Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th July 2017. Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden. ISSN 2405-8858
  25. Sharrock S (2012) Global strategy for plant conservation: a guide to the GSPC, all the targets, objectives and facts. BGCI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Bot J Linn Soc 181(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. UNEP-WCMC (2014) Biodiversity A-Z Website:, UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. 20th Aug 2017
  28. Wang LS, Chen B, Ji LQ, Ma KP (2010) Progress in biodiversity informatics. Biodivers Sci 18(5):429–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xue DY (2005) Status quo and protection of bio-genetic resources in China. China Environmental Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang QX, Chen WB, Sun LD, Zhao FY, Huang BQ, Yang WR, Tao Y, Wang J, Yuan ZQ, Fan GY, Xing Z, Han CL, Pan HT, Zhong X, Shi WF, Liang XM, DL D, Sun FM, ZD X, Hao RJ, Lü T, Lü YM, Zheng ZQ, Sun M, Luo L, Cai M, Gao YK, Wang JY, Yin Y, Xu X, Cheng TR, Wang J (2012) The genome of Prunus mume. Nat Commun 3:1318CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhou Y, Yan WD (2015) Conservation and application of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) in China: ethnobotany and genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 63(6):1049–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhu TP, Liu L, Zhu M (2007) Plant resources of China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of ChinaBeijingChina
  2. 2.Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  3. 3.Yunnan Institute of Forest Inventory and PlanningKunmingChina
  4. 4.Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Forest Resources Monitoring CenterHunanChina
  5. 5.School of Life Sciences, Yunnan UniversityKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations