Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Wound Healing and Muscle Regeneration

  • E. Martínez-Sarrà
  • S. Montori
  • C. Gil-Recio
  • R. Núñez-Toldrà
  • N. Carrio Bertran
  • A. Al Madhoun
  • M. Sampaolesi
  • M. AtariEmail author


Stem cells (SC) are unspecialized cells that can self-renew and generate specialized progeny through differentiation. These cells are found in almost all multicellular organisms and are capable of renewing themselves through cell division. Moreover, under certain stimuli, they can differentiate into tissue-specific cells. Therefore, stem cells serve as a reservoir and repair system capable of replacing differentiated cells lost either naturally through apoptosis or as a result of trauma or disease. Consequently, the potential of stem cells to renew and differentiate makes them attractive candidates for regenerative medicine. These basic stem cell properties differ among various sources of stem cells, and they can be classified based on their origin and/or differentiation potential. The capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types and be able to originate a mature cell type is referred to as potency. Stem cells can be classified depending on their differentiation potential. Totipotent stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types; such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. Pluripotent stem cells produce all cells of an organism and have the capacity to form representative tissues of all three germ layers of the developing embryo: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Multipotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate only in a closely related family of cells from the same germ layer tissues, while unipotent stem cells exhibit limited development potential, giving rise to only a single cell type. Stem cells can be also classified according to the type of cells. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) are cells derived from blastocyst, Adult Stem Cells (ASC) refer to any cell found in a developed organism that has the ability to divide and create another cell like itself or even to create a cell more differentiated than itself, and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) are reprogrammed somatic cells with pluripotent capabilities. Several types of adult stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED), Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSC), Dental Follicle Precursor Cells (DFPC), Stem Cells from Apical Papilla (SCAP) and Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC). These post-natal populations have mesenquimal-like qualities such as the capacity for self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into multiple tissues including adipose, bone, endothelial and neural-like tissue. Dental Pulp Pluripotent-like Stem Cells (DPPSC) are also isolated from the dental pulp of the third molars, express pluripotency markers, and show embryonic-like behaviour differentiating into tissues of the three embryonic layers. Mesoderm-derived cell types are osteogenic cells, chondrogenic cells, adipogenic cells, skeletal muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells and endothelial cells. To date, there exist two commonly used methods to induce vascular cell differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells: embryoid body (EB) formation and monolayer-directed differentiation. The two major cellular components of blood vessels are Endothelial Cells (EC) and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC). A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control VSMC differentiation is essential to help develop new approaches to both prevent and treat several related diseases. Another important mesoderm-derived tissue for regenerative medicine is skeletal muscle, which is responsible for the voluntary movement of the body. Many diseases that affect the musculature belong to the group of muscular dystrophies (MD). Development of reliable and reproducible in vitro cellular models to study these tissues is needed, yet it has been problematic due to intrinsic peculiarities of them.


DPPSC Stem cells Dental pulp Tissue engineering Mesoderm tissue 



Alpha smooth muscle actin


Common gamma chain/interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma


Alkaline phosphatase


Adult stem cells


Bone marrow


Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells


Bone morphogenetic protein 4


Cluster of differentiation 31/platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1


Dental follicle precursor cells


Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium


DNA methyltransferase 3 beta


Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells


Dental pulp stem cells


Dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells


Endothelial cells


Epidermal growth factor


Endothelial growth medium 2


Embryonic stem cells


Fetal bovine serum


Fibroblast growth factor


Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Good manufacturing practices


Human embryonic stem cells


Human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related


Human serum


Human umbilical endothelial cells


Induced pluripotent stem (cells)


Kruppel-like factor 4


Linoleic acid-bovine serum albumin


Lamin A/C


Left-right determination factor 2


Leukemia inhibitory factor


Dystrophin glycoprotein complex




Multipotent adult progenitor cells


Muscular dystrophy


Myosin heavy chain


Marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible


Mesenchymal progenitor cells


Mesenchymal stromal cells


Octamer-binding transcription factor 4


Phosphate-buffered saline


Polymerase chain reaction


Human platelet-derived growth factor


Periodontal ligament stem cells


Recombination activating gene 2


ZFP42 zinc finger protein


Retrotranscriptase PCR


Stem cells


Stem cells from apical papilla


Short-comparative genomic hybridization


Severe combined immunodeficiency




Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth


Smooth muscle cells


Sex-determining region Y-box2


Stage-specific embryonic antigen


Teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1


Turbo green fluorescent protein


Transforming growth factor beta


Tumor rejection antigen-1-60


Tumor rejection antigen-1-81


Vascular cadherin


Endothelial growth factor receptor 2


Very small embryonic-like


Vascular smooth muscle cells


von Willebrand factor endothelial vascular


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Martínez-Sarrà
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Montori
    • 1
  • C. Gil-Recio
    • 1
  • R. Núñez-Toldrà
    • 1
  • N. Carrio Bertran
    • 1
  • A. Al Madhoun
    • 3
  • M. Sampaolesi
    • 2
    • 4
  • M. Atari
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Regenerative Medicine Research Institute, Universitat Internacional de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Translational Cardiomyology Laboratory, Stem Cell Biology and Embryology Unit, Department of Development and RegenerationLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Research Division, Dasman Diabetes InstituteDasmanKuwait
  4. 4.Human Anatomy Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic MedicineUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

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