The Evolution of a Psychology of Creativity

  • Phillip McIntyre
  • Janet Fulton
  • Elizabeth Paton
  • Susan Kerrigan
  • Michael Meany
Part of the Creativity, Education and the Arts book series (CEA)


This chapter concentrates on the evolution of a psychology of creativity. In doing so, we track thinking from early attempts at understanding creativity from Sir Francis Galton and Cesare Lombroso through to Freud and the psychoanalytic view of creativity. We then turn our attention to the rationalist responses from psychology, addressing Guildford’s early contributions, psychometric testing for creativity and the rise of the behaviourists. Personality approaches are examined before we move on to creative thinking, computational models and simulations of the creative mind. We then explore possible biological and biochemical foundations of creativity before moving outward to motivation and social psychological approaches. We finish this section by looking at processes of group creativity and the effect the environment has on creative people’s work.



A section of this chapter has been published previously in the following:Paton, E. (2016). How do people who trained in teaching, medicine or law become fiction writers? The case for task specific commonalities across domains of creativity. Global Media Journal, 10(2).


  1. Albert, R. S., & Runco, M. A. (1999). A history of research on creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 16–31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(2), 393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amabile, T. M. (1995). Attributions of creativity: What are the consequences? Creativity Research Journal, 8(4), 423–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  6. Amabile, T. M. (1998). How to kill creativity. Harvard Business Review, 76(5), 76–87.Google Scholar
  7. Amabile, T. M., Goldfarb, P., & Brackfield, S. C. (1990). Social influences on creativity: Evaluation, coaction, and surveillance. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 6–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amabile, T. M., & Tighe, E. (1993). Questions of creativity. In J. Brockman (Ed.), Creativity: The reality club (Vol. 4, pp. 7–27). New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  9. Arieti, S. (1976). Creativity: The magic synthesis. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Barron, F. (1963). Creativity and psychological health: Origins of personal vitality and creative freedom. Princeton: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  11. Barron, F. (1969). Creative person and creative process. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  12. Barron, F., & Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bekhtereva, N. P., Dan’ko, S. G., Starchenko, M. G., Pakhomov, S. V., & Medvedev, S. V. (2001). Study of the brain organization of creativity: III. brain activation assessed by the local cerebral blood flow and EEG. Human Physiology, 27(4), 390–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bey, T., & Holmes, C. (1990). Mentoring: Developing successful new teachers. Virginia: Association of Teacher Educators.Google Scholar
  15. Bjorkland, D. P., & Kipp, K. (1996). Parental Investment theory and gender differences in the evolution of inhibition mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 120(2), 163–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Block, R. I., Farinpour, R., & Braverman, K. (1992). Acute effects of marijuana on cognition: Relationships to chronic effects and smoking techniques. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, 43(3), 907–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boden, M. (2004). The creative mind: Myths and mechanisms (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Bogan, J. E., & Gordon, H. W. (1971). Musical tests of functional lateralization with intracarotid amobarbital. Nature, 230, 524–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bourassa, M., & Vaugeois, P. (2000). Effects of marijuana use on divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 13(2), 411–416.Google Scholar
  20. Briggs-Myers, I., & Briggs, K. C. (1985). Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bringsjord, S., & Ferrucci, D. (1999). Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: Inside the mind of BRUTUS, a storytelling machine. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and communication. London: Pergamon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brooks, V., & Sykes, P. (1997). The good mentor guide: Initial teacher education in secondary schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Carson, S., Peterson, J., & Higgins, D. (2003). Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clifford, M. M. (1988). Failure tolerance and academic risk-taking in ten- to twelve-year-old students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, H. (1979). What is an image? Paper presented at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  27. Cohen, H. (1995). The further exploits of AARON Painter. Constructions of the Mind: Artificial Intelligence and the Humanities, 4(2), 141–160.Google Scholar
  28. Collins, M. A., & Amabile, T. M. (1999). Motivation and creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 297–312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Conti, R., Amabile, T. M., & Pollack, S. (1995). Enhancing intrinsic motivation, learning, and creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1107–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cross, P. G., Cattell, R. B., & Butcher, H. J. (1967). The personality pattern of creative artists. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 37, 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Society, culture, and person: A systems view of creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 325–329). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The creative personality: Ten paradoxical traits of the creative personality. Psychology Today. Accessed 30 Nov 2017.
  33. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  34. Dacey, J., & Lennon, K. (1998). Understanding creativity: The interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  35. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Edwards, B. (1979). Drawing on the right side of the brain: A course in enhancing creativity and artistic confidence. Los Angeles: Tarcher.Google Scholar
  37. Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth? American Psychologist, 51, 1153–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisenberger, R., & Selbst, M. (1994). Does reward increase or decrease creativity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1116–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eisenberger, R., & Shanock, L. (2003). Rewards, intrinsic motivation, and creativity: A case study of conceptual and methodological isolation. Creativity Research Journal, 15(2 & 3), 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., & Pretz, J. (1998). Can the promise of reward increase creativity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 704–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Esquivel, G. B. (1995). Teacher behaviors that foster creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7(2), 185–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans, C. R., & Dion, K. L. (1991). Group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research, 22(2), 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eysenck, M. W., & Keane, M. (2005). Cognitive psychology: A student’s handbook (5th ed.). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  44. Feldman, D. H. (1999). The development of creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 169–185). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Feldman, D. H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Gardner, H. (Eds.). (1994). Changing the world: A framework for the study of creativity. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  46. Finke, R., Ward, T., & Smith, S. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. Freud, S. (1931). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 8, pp. 9–236). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  48. Freud, S. (1959). Creative writers and daydreaming. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 9, pp. 141–153). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  49. Galton, F. (1892). Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences (2nd ed.). London: Watts & Co.Google Scholar
  50. Galton, F. (1907). Memories of my life. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  51. Gardner, H. (1988). Creative lives and creative works: A synthetic scientific approach. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 298–324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Gardner, H. (1993/2011). Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  53. Getzels, J. W., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1967). Scientific creativity. Science Journal, 3, 80–84.Google Scholar
  54. Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted children. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  55. Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1963). The highly intelligent and the highly creative adolescent. In C. W. Taylor & F. Barron (Eds.), Scientific creativity: Its recognition and development (pp. 119–123). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  56. Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  57. Goertzel, V., & Goertzel, M. G. (1962). Cradles of eminence. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  58. Goertzel, V., Goertzel, M. G., & Goertzel, T. (1978). Three hundred eminent personalities: A psychosocial analysis of the famous. San Fransisco: Jossey-Boss.Google Scholar
  59. Gough, H. G. (1975). California psychological inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  60. Gruber, H. E. (1982). Darwin on man (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  61. Gruber, H. E. (2001). Creative work: The case of Charles Darwin. American Psychologist, 56(4), 346–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gruber, H. E., & Wallace, D. B. (1999). The case study method and evolving systems approach for understanding unique creative people at work. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 93–115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gustafson, R., & Norlander, T. (1994). Effects of alcohol on persistent effort and deductive thinking during the preparation phase of the creative process. Journal of Creative Behavior, 28, 124–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hellige, J. B. (2001). Hemispheric asymmetry: What’s right and what’s left (perspectives in cognitive neuroscience). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (1988). The conditions of creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 11–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Janiger, O. (1960). The use of hallucinogenic agents in psychiatry. California Clinician, 56(222–224), 251–259.Google Scholar
  68. Janiger, O. (1999). Dr. Oscar Janiger’s pioneering LSD research: Personal statement by Oscar Janiger. Bulletin of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies MAPS, 9(1), 5–6.Google Scholar
  69. Janiger, O., & de Rios, M. (1989). LSD and creativity. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 21, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  71. Jaušovec, N. (1999). Brain biology and brain functioning. In M. Runco & S. Pritzker (Eds.), The encyclopaedia of creativity (pp. 203–212). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  72. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1988). Freedom and constraint in creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), the nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 202–219). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  73. John-Steiner, V. (2000). Creative collaboration. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Jung, C. G. (1966a). Collected works of C. G. Jung (Vol. 15, 2nd ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Jung, C. G. (1966b). The spirit in man, art, and literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jung, C. G. (1971). Collected works of C.G. Jung: Psychological types (Vol. 6). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  77. Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E. M., Haberman, J., Frymiare, J. L., Arambel-Liu, S., Greenblatt, R., Reber, P. J., & Kounios, J. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLoS Biology, 2(4), 500–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (Eds.). (2000). Principles of neural science (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1993). Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 681–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kayser, T. A. (1995). Mining group gold: How to cash in on the collaborative brain power of a group. Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Kealy, W. A., & Mullen, C. A. (1996). Re-thinking mentoring relationships. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Keinänen, M., & Gardner, H. (2004). Vertical and horizontal mentoring for creativity. In R. Sternberg, E. Grigorenko, & J. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 169–193). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kerr, B., & Gagliardi, C. (2003). Measuring creativity in research and practice. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 155–169). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Khaleefa, O. H., Erdos, G., & Asharia, I. H. (1996). Creativity, culture and education. High Abilities Studies, 7, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  86. Köhler, W. (1927). The mentality of apes. New York: Liveright.Google Scholar
  87. Krippner, S. (1969). The psychedelic state, the hypnotic trance, and the creative act. In C. Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness (pp. 271–290). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  88. Lang, A. R., Verret, L. D., & Watt, C. (1984). Drinking and creativity: Objective and subjective effects. Addictive Behaviors, 9, 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Langley, P., Simon, H. A., Bradshaw, G., & Zytkow, J. (1987). Scientific discovery: Computational explorations of the creative processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  90. Lapp, W. M., Collins, R. L., & Izzo, C. V. (1994). On the enhancement of creativity by alcohol: Pharmacology or expectation? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 173–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leavitt, H. J., & Lipman-Blumen, J. (1995). Hot groups. Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 109–115.Google Scholar
  92. Leonard, D., & Swap, W. (1999). When sparks fly: Igniting creativity in groups. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  93. Ludwig, A. M. (1990). Alcohol input and creative output. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 953–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. MacKinnon, D. (1962). The nature and nurture of creative talent. American Psychologist, 17, 484–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. MacKinnon, D. (1965). Personality and the realization of creative potential. American Psychologist, 20, 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. MacKinnon, D. (1966). What makes a person creative? Theory into Practice, 5(4), 152–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Martindale, C. (1999). Biological bases for creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 137–152). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Princeton: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  100. Mayer, R. E. (1999). Fifty years of creativity research. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 449–460). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. McGrath, J. E. (1984). Groups: Interaction and performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  102. Mölle, M., Marshall, L., Lutzenberger, W., Pietrowsky, R., & Born, J. (1996). Enhanced dynamic complexity in the human EEG during creative thinking. Neuroscience Letters, 208(1), 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Moore, R. (1997). The effects of cohesion on the creativity of small groups. International Social Science Review, 72(3/4), 84–93.Google Scholar
  104. Mullen, B., Johnson, C., & Salas, E. (1991). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: A meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 12(1), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Myers, R. E., & Torrance, E. P. (1961). Can teachers encourage creative thinking? Educational Leadership, 19, 156–159.Google Scholar
  106. Nash, H. (1962). Alcohol and caffeine: A study of their psychological effects. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Newberg, A. B., & D’Aquili, E. G. (2000). The creative brain/the creative mind. Zygon, 35(1), 53–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1956). The logic theory machine: A complex information processing system. IRE Transactions on Information Theory, 2(3), 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  110. Newell, A., Shaw, J. C., & Simon, H. A. (1960). Report on a general problem solving program. Paper presented at the International Conference on Information Processing, Paris.Google Scholar
  111. Norlander, T., & Gustafson, R. (1996). Effects of alcohol on scientific thought during the incubation phase of the creative process. Journal of Creative Behavior, 30, 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Norlander, T., & Gustafson, R. (1997). Effects of alcohol on picture drawing during the verification phase of the creative process. Creativity Research Journal, 10(4), 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Osborn, A. F. (1963). Applied imagination (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  114. Paulus, P., Dzindolet, M. T., Poletes, G., & Camacho, L. M. (1993). Perception of performance in group brainstorming: The illusion of group productivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Petrie, D. J. (1991). Creativity and constraint in the British film industry. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Plucker, J. A., & Dana, R. Q. (1998). Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use: Relationships to undergraduate students’ creative achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 39(5), 472–481.Google Scholar
  117. Rawlinson, J. G. (1981). Creative thinking and brainstorming. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  118. Raychaudhuri, M. (1966). Studies in artistic creativity: Personality structure of the musician. Calcutta: Rabindra Bahrati.Google Scholar
  119. Roe, A. (1952). The making of a scientist. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.Google Scholar
  120. Roe, A. (1963). Psychological approaches to creativity in science. In M. A. Coler & H. K. Hughes (Eds.), Essays on creativity in the sciences (pp. 153–182). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Rogers, C. (1954). Towards a theory of creativity. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 11, 249–260.Google Scholar
  122. Schwarz-Geschka, M. (1994). Creativity in Japanese society. Creativity and Innovation Management, 3(4), 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Simonton, D. K. (1977). Eminence, creativity, and geographic marginality: A recursive structural equation model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(11), 805–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Simonton, D. K. (1984). Artistic creativity and interpersonal relationships across and within generations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1273–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Simonton, D. K. (1988a). Age and outstanding achievement: What do we know after a century of research? Psychological Bulletin, 104(2), 251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Simonton, D. K. (1988b). Creativity, leadership, and chance. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Simonton, D. K. (1991). Emergence and realization of genius: The lives and works of 120 classical composers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(5), 829–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who makes history and why. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  129. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychological Review, 104, 66–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Simonton, D. K. (1999). Creativity from a historiometric perspective. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 116–133). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Smith, S., Ward, T., & Finke, R. (1995). The creative cognition approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  132. Sperry, R. (1973). Lateral specialization of cerebral function in the surgically separated hemispheres. In F. J. McGuigan (Ed.), The psychophysiology of thinking (pp. 5–19). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  133. Sperry, R. (1981). Some effects of disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres. Accessed 30 Mar 2006.
  134. Sternberg, R., & Lubart, T. (1995). Defying the crowd: Cultivating creativity in a culture of conformity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  135. Sternberg, R., & Lubart, T. (1996). Investing in creativity. American Psychologist, 51(7), 677–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sternberg, R., & Lubart, T. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 3–15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Stroebe, W., Diehl, M., & Abakoumkin, G. (1992). The illusion of group effectivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Taylor, D. W., Berry, P. C., & Block, C. H. (1958). Does group participation when using brainstorming facilitate or inhibit creative thinking. Administrative Science Quarterly, 3(1), 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Torrance, E. P. (1968). A longitudinal examination of the fourth grade slump in creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 12, 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Torrance, E. P. (1970). Influence of dyadic interaction on creative functioning. Psychological Reports, 26, 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Truax, B. (1984). Acoustic communication. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  143. Walberg, H. J. (1969). A portrait of the artist and scientist as young men. Exceptional Children, 36, 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Walberg, H. J. (1982). Childhood traits and environmental conditions of highly eminent adults. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25, 103–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Walberg, H. J. (1988). Creativity and talent as learning. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 340–361). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Walberg, H. J., Rasher, S. P., & Parkerson, J. (1980). Childhood and eminence. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 13, 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wallas, G. (1976). Stages in the creative process. In A. Rothenberg & C. R. Hausman (Eds.), The creativity question (pp. 69–73). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Ward, T., Smith, S., & Finke, R. (1999). Creative cognition. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of creativity (pp. 189–212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Weisberg, R. (1993). Creativity: Beyond the myth of genius. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co..Google Scholar
  150. Westby, E. L., & Dawson, V. L. (1995). Creativity: Asset or burden in the classroom? Creativity Research Journal, 8(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wolff, J. (1981). The social production of art. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zolberg, V. (1990). Constructing a sociology of the arts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phillip McIntyre
    • 1
  • Janet Fulton
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Paton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susan Kerrigan
    • 1
  • Michael Meany
    • 1
  1. 1.Communication and MediaUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations