Advertisement

Emotional Intelligence as an Ability: Theory, Challenges, and New Directions

  • Marina Fiori
  • Ashley K. Vesely-Maillefer
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

About 25 years ago emotional intelligence (EI) was first introduced to the scientific community. In this chapter, we provide a general framework for understanding EI conceptualized as an ability. We start by identifying the origins of the construct rooted in the intelligence literature and the foundational four-branch model of ability EI, then describe the most commonly employed measures of EI as ability, and critically review predictive validity evidence. We further approach current challenges, including the difficulties of scoring answers as “correct” in the emotional sphere, and open a discussion on how to increase the incremental validity of ability EI. We finally suggest new directions by introducing a distinction between a crystallized component of EI, based on knowledge of emotions, and a fluid component, based on the processing of emotion information.

Keywords

Emotional intelligence Ability EI Fluid EI Crystallized EI Emotion information processing Emotion knowledge 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter benefited from the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no 100014_165605 awarded to Marina Fiori).

References

  1. Alessandri, G., Vecchione, M., & Caprara, G. V. (2015). Assessment of regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs: A review of the status of the art and some suggestions to move the field forward. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33(1), 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, V., Rahman, N., Weissman, A., MacCann, C., Lewis, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2015). The Situational Test of Emotional Management–Brief (STEM-B): Development and validation using item response theory and latent class analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Dasborough, M. T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, E. J. (2010). Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: Results for two new tests. British Journal of Psychology, 101(3), 563–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Austin, E. J., Saklofske, D. H., & Egan, V. (2005). Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 547–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  7. Bänziger, T., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Emotion recognition from expressions in face, voice, and body: The Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT). Emotion, 9, 691–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18, 13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonanno, G. A., Papa, A., Lalande, K., Westphal, M., & Coifman, K. (2004). The importance of being flexible: The ability to both enhance and suppress emotional expression predicts long-term adjustment. Psychological Science, 15(7), 482–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., & Salovey, P. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780–795. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.4.780 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brackett, M. A., Warner, R. M., & Bosco, J. S. (2005). Emotional intelligence and relationship quality among couples. Personal Relationships, 12, 197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brasseur, S., Grégoire, J., Bourdu, R., & Mikolajczak, M. (2013). The profile of emotional competence (PEC): Development and validation of a self-reported measure that fits dimensions of emotional competence theory. PLoS One, 8(5), e62635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burrus, J., Betnacourt, A., Holtzman, S., Minsky, J., MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2012). Emotional intelligence relates to wellbeing: Evidence from the situational judgment test of emotional management. Applied Psychology. Health and Well-Being, 4, 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y. C., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539–561. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00119-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciarrochi, J., Deane, F. P., & Anderson, S. (2002). Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00012-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Grosset/Putnam.Google Scholar
  19. Côté, S., & Miners, C. T. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Côte, S., Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C. T. H. (2010). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 496–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. David, N., Bewernick, B. H., Cohen, M. X., Newen, A., Lux, S., Fink, G. R., … Vogeley, K. (2006). Neural representations of self versus other: Visual-spatial perspective taking and agency in a virtual ball-tossing game. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(6), 898–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989–1015. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.75.4.989 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ancoli, S. (1980). Facial signs of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1125–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan, H., Jackson, T., Yang, X., Tang, W., & Zhang, J. (2010). The factor structure of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test V 2.0 (MSCEIT): A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(7), 781–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farrelly, D., & Austin, E. J. (2007). Ability EI as an intelligence? Associations of the MSCEIT with performance on emotion processing and social tasks and with cognitive ability. Cognition and Emotion, 21(5), 1043–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feldman-Barrett, L., Niedenthal, P. M., & Winkielman, P. (Eds.). (2005). Emotion: conscious and unconscious. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Extremera, N. (2016). Ability emotional intelligence, depression, and well-being. Emotion Review, 8, 311–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fiori, M. (2009). A new look at emotional intelligence: A dual process framework. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiori, M., & Antonakis, J. (2011). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Searching for valid measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 329–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fiori, M., & Antonakis, J. (2012). Selective attention to emotional stimuli: What IQ and openness do, and emotional intelligence does not. Intelligence, 40(3), 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fiori, M., Antonietti, J. P., Mikolajczak, M., Luminet, O., Hansenne, M., & Rossier, J. (2014). What is the ability emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using Item Response Theory. PLoSOne, 9(6), e98827. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiori, M. (2015). Emotional intelligence compensates for low IQ and boosts low emotionality individuals in a selfpresentation task. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fiori, M., & Ortony, A. (2016). Are emotionally intelligent individuals hypersensitive to emotions? Testing the “curse of emotion”. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016(1), 10023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freeland, E. M., Terry, R. A., & Rodgers, J. L. (2008). Emotional intelligence: What’s in a name? In J. C. Cassady & M. A. Eissa (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Perspectives on educational and positive psychology (pp. 93–117). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing. US.Google Scholar
  36. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  37. Gignac, G. E. (2005). Evaluating the MSCEIT V2.0 via CFA: Comment on Mayer et al. Emotion, 5, 233–235. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.5.2.233 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gignac, G. E. (2008). Genos emotional intelligence inventory: technical manual. Sydney: NSW. Genos Press.Google Scholar
  39. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  40. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grubb, W. L., III, & McDaniel, M. A. (2007). The fakability of Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory Short Form: Catch me if you can. Human Performance, 20, 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup2001_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. (2014). Predicting school success: Comparing conscientiousness, grit, and emotion regulation ability. Journal of Research in Personality, 52, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Joseph, D. L., Jin, J., Newman, D. A., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2015). Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 298–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 54–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keefer, K. V. (2015). Self-report assessments of emotional competencies: A critical look at methods and meanings. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Libbrecht, N., & Lievens, F. (2012). Validity evidence for the situational judgment test paradigm in emotional intelligence measurement. International Journal of Psychology, 47, 438–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Libbrecht, N., Lievens, F., Carette, B., & Côté, S. C. (2014). Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school. Emotion, 14, 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lloyd, G. (1979). The man of reason. Metaphilosophy, 10(1), 18–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9973.1979.tb00062.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lopes, P. N., Cote, S., & Salovey, P. (2006). An ability model of emotional intelligence: Implications for assessment and training. In V. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work (pp. 53–80). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  52. MacCann, C. (2010). Further examination of emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence: A latent variable analysis of fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. MacCann, C., Joseph, D. L., Newman, D. A., & Roberts, R. D. (2014). Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of intelligence: Evidence from hierarchical and bifactor models. Emotion, 14, 358–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. MacCann, C., Lievens, F., Libbrecht, N., & Roberts, R. D. (2016). Differences between multimedia and text-based assessments of emotion management: An exploration with the Multimedia Emotion Management Assessment (MEMA). Cognition and Emotion, 30(7), 1317–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. MacCann, C., Pearce, N., & D Roberts, R. (2011). Emotional intelligence as assessed by situational judgment and emotion recognition tests: Building the nomological net. Psihologijske Teme, 20(3), 393–412.Google Scholar
  56. MacCann, C., & Roberts, R. D. (2008). New paradigms for assessing emotional intelligence: Theory and data. Emotion, 8, 540–551. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012746 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. MacCann, C., Wang, L., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2010). Emotional intelligence and the eye of the beholder: Comparing self- and parent-rated situational judgments in adolescents. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 673–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MacLean, P. D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the visceral brain: Recent developments bearing on the Papez theory of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 11, 338–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marsh, H. W., & Craven, R. G. (2006). Reciprocal effects of self-concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: Beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 133–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matsumoto, D., LeRoux, J., Wilson-Cohn, C., Raroque, J., Kooken, K., Ekman, P., et al. (2000). A new test to measure emotion recognition ability: Matsumoto and Ekman’s Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 179–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Nakagawa, S., & 37 Members of the Multinational Study of Cultural Display Rules. (2008). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 925–937. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.6.925 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Maul, A. (2012). The validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) as a measure of emotional intelligence. Emotion Review, 4, 394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  66. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896(99)00016-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2016). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion Review, 8(4), 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  71. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2005). The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – Youth Version (MSCEIT-YV), research version. Toronto, ON: Multi Health Systems.Google Scholar
  72. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist, 63, 503–517. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.3.1.97 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Maillefer, A., Udayar, S., & Fiori, M. (submitted). Enhancing the prediction of emotionally intelligent behavior: The PAT framework of EI Involving Trait EI, Ability EI, and Emotion Information Processing.Google Scholar
  75. Mikolajczak, M. (2009). Moving beyond the ability-trait debate: A three level model of emotional intelligence. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 25–31.Google Scholar
  76. Montgomery, J. M., McCrimmon, A. W., Schwean, V. L., & Saklofske, D. H. (2010). Emotional intelligence in Asperger Syndrome: Implications of dissonance between intellect and affect. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 655–582.Google Scholar
  77. Nemiah, J. C., Freyberger, H., & Sifneos, P. E. (1976). Alexithymia: A view of the psychosomatic process. In O. W. Hill (Ed.), Modern trends in psychosomatic medicine (Vol. 3, pp. 430–439). London, England: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  78. Newman, D. A., Joseph, D. L., & MacCann, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence and job performance: The importance of emotion regulation and emotional labor context. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3(2), 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nowicki, S., & Duke, M. P. (1994). Individual Differences in the Nonverbal Communication of Affect The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 18, 9–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Boyle, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 788–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ortony, A., Revelle, W. & Zinbarg, R. (2008) Why emotional intelligence needs a fluid component. In Matthews, G., Roberts, R., Zeidner, M. (eds) Emotional ... Revelle, W. (2007) Experimental approaches to the study of personality, In B. Robins, C. Fraley, and R. Krueger, Personality Research Methods, Guilford. p. 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmer, B., Gignac, G., Manocha, R., & Stough, C. (2005). A psychometric evaluation of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test version 2.0. Intelligence, 33, 285–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2004.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Papadogiannis, P. K., Logan, D., & Sitarenios, G. (2009). An ability model of emotional intelligence: A rationale, description, and application of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 9–40). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-88370-0_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425–448. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Petrides, K. V., Perez-Gonzalez, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 26–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930601038912 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Reyes, M. R., Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2012). Measuring emotional intelligence in early adolescence with the MSCEIT-YV: Psychometric properties and relationship with academic performance and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(4), 344–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2007). Measuring emotional intelligence as a set of mental abilities. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 230–257). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., O’Brien, K., MacCann, C., Reid, J., & Maul, A. (2006). Exploring the validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) with established emotions measures. Emotion, 6(4), 663–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2007). Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 419–474). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., & MacCann, C. (2008). The measurement of emotional intelligence: A decade of progress? In G. J. Boyle (Ed.), Handbook of personality. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  91. Robinson, M. D., & Neighbors, C. (2006). Catching the mind in action: Implicit methods in personality research and assessment. In M. Eid & E. Diener (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology (pp. 115–125). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rosenthal, R., Hall, J. A., DiMateo, M. R., Rogers, L. P., & Archer, D. (1979). Sensitivity to nonverbal communication. The PONS test. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rossen, E., Kranzler, J. H., & Algina, J. (2008). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test V2.0 (MSCEIT). Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1258–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Salovey, P., & Grewal, D. (2005). The science of emotional intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 281–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00381.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211. https://doi.org/10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schlegel, K. (2016). Comment: Looking beyond the ability EI model facilitates the development of new performance-based tests. Emotion Review, 8(4), 302–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schlegel, K., Fontaine, J. R., & Scherer, K. R. (2017). The nomological network of emotion recognition ability. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.Google Scholar
  98. Schlegel, K., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2014). Introducing the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test: An example of Rasch-based test development. Psychological Assessment, 26, 666–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schlegel, K., & Scherer, K. R. (2015). Introducing a short version of the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT-S): Psychometric properties and construct validation. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 1383–1392. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0646-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sternberg, R. J. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  101. Stough, C., Saklofske, D. H., & Parker, J. D. A. (2009). A brief analysis of 20 years of emotional intelligence: An introduction to assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 3–8). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-88370-0_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tamietto, M., & De Gelder, B. (2010). Neural bases of the non-conscious perception of emotional signals. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(10), 697–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227–235.Google Scholar
  104. Vesely, A. K. (2011). Differential effects of perfectionism and anxiety on trait and ability emotional intelligence (Master’s thesis). Available from DSpace at University of Calgary.Google Scholar
  105. Vesely-Maillefer, A. K. (2015). Striving for teaching success: Enhancing emotional intelligence in pre-service teachers (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Western Ontario.Google Scholar
  106. Vogeley, K., Bussfeld, P., Newen, A., Herrmann, S., Happé, F., Falkai, P., … Zilles, K. (2001). Mind reading: Neural mechanisms of theory of mind and self-perspective. NeuroImage, 14(1), 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Walter, F., Cole, M. S., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Sine qua non of leadership or folderol? Academy of Management Perspectives, 25, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ybarra, O., Kross, E., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2014). The “big idea” that is yet to be: Toward a more motivated, contextual, and dynamic model of emotional intelligence. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28, 93–107. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2012.0106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 161–175.Google Scholar
  110. Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., Roberts, R. D., & MacCann, C. (2003). Development of emotional intelligence: Toward a multi-level investment model. Human Development, 46, 69–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, 13, 64–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations