The surface properties of primary packaging containers are determining their interaction with the parenteral drug product solution. This is not only restricted to ion leaching or corrosion effects but also impacting adsorption phenomena. The formulation can creep up the walls forming a thin liquid layer on the inside of the containers. This layer is getting visible as product residues on the vial walls after a lyophilization process. This mechanism is known under the term of “fogging”. This chapter describes the underlying root causes and provides measures to avoid the issue.
KeywordsGlass Primary packaging containers Vials Lyophilization Fogging Surface properties Marangoni effect
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