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Clinical, Cellular and Serologic Biomarkers of Intestinal Fibrosis

  • Antonio Di Sabatino
  • Paolo Giuffrida
Chapter

Abstract

Intestinal fibrosis, which is due to an exaggerated accumulation of extracellular matrix, is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) leading to intestinal obstruction and need for surgery. Currently, there are no biomarkers able to predict the development of intestinal fibrosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the candidate biomarkers, including clinical factors (i.e. smoking, ileal location, early use of steroids), circulating cells (i.e. fibrocytes), serum extracellular matrix components (i.e. collagen, fibronectin) or enzymes (i.e. tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1), serum growth factors (i.e. basic fibroblast growth factor, YKL-40) and serum antimicrobial antibodies (i.e. anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies ASCA), have been shown to predict a disabling disease course rather than a fibrostenosing phenotype. In this chapter we critically review clinical, cellular and serological biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords

Anti-microbial antibody Extracellular matrix Fibrocyte Growth factor Ileal location 

Abbreviations

ACCA

Anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibody

ALCA

Anti-laminaribioside IgG antibody

AMCA

Anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibody

anti-C

Anti-chitin carbohydrate antibody

anti-CBir1

Anti-bacterial flagellin CBir1 antibody

anti-I2

Anti-Pseudomonas-associated sequence I2 antibody

anti-L

Anti-laminarin carbohydrate antibody

anti-OmpC

Anti-Escherichia coli outer membrane protein C antibody

ASCA

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody

bFGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

CD

Crohn’s disease

ECM

Extracellular matrix

ELF

Enhanced liver fibrosis

FAP

Fibroblast activation protein

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PIIINP

N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TIMP

Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

UC

Ulcerative colitis

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, San Matteo Hospital FoundationUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

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